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Antibody combines with 2 antigens to form a lattice 3

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Antibody combines with 2 antigens to form a lattice. 3. List the factors affecting the antigen- antibody reaction and explain how each could result in a false reaction in the laboratory. --Concentration of antibody and antigen --Time—reactions aren’t permanent --Temperature—room temperature and lower (IgG reacts better at high temp 37c and IgM reacts better at room temp) --pH—H+ bonds between them. Amino acids change their charge depending on pH --enhancement media—low ionic strength solution LISS—allows more antibody to uptake antigen. Antibody enhancement Albumin—antibody enhancement --Enchancement technique—using anti human globulins-- anti IgG or Anti IgM injects rabbit with heavy chain of IgG then bleed them. This is where anti IgG comes from 4. Explain the principles and interpret the results for the following lab techniques used to detect antigen-antibody reactions. State the advantages and disadvantages of each. a. Precipitation— b. Nephelmometry
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c. Flocculation d. Agglutination e. Direct and indirect antihuman globulin tests 6) Describe how antihuman globulin is produced injects rabbit with heavy chain of IgG then bleed them. This is where anti IgG comes from 7) Discuss how antihuman globulin may be used in the laboratory Anti IgG is used in the laboratory to help determine blood type 8. Define the term monoclonal antibody and explain the advantages and disadvantages of its use in the clinical lab. Monoclonal antibody-- plasma cell produces one antibody --prevents false positives in pregnancy tests, measures hormone levels, treats different types of cancer and severe rejection episodes --very expensive 9. Define the term polyclonal antibody and explain the advantages and disadvantages of its use in the clinical lab. Polyclonal antibody— variable region that comes from different plasma cells. ---treats severe rejection --may cause serum sickness Hybridoma cell—2 different cells are fused. When this happens you get monoclonal antibody. This is done to see how antibodies react to epitopes. Tests to see which antibodies react the best. Great for in vitro diagnostics.
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