systems internet linkages new databases could lead to a re conceptualization of

Systems internet linkages new databases could lead to

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systems, internet linkages, new databases could lead to a re-conceptualization of the very way that bureaucracies work. There is also general agreement as to the actual changes that are involved in moving away from the traditional administrative model. First, whatever the model is called, it represents a major shift from traditional public administration with far greater attention now being paid to the achievement of results and the personal responsibility of managers. Secondly, there is an expressed intention to move away from classic bureaucracy to make organizations, personnel, and employment terms and conditions more flexible. Thirdly, organizational and personal objectives are to be set clearly and this enables measurement of their achieve-ment through performance indicators. Fourthly, senior staffs are more likely to be politically committed to the government of the day rather than being non-partisan or neutral. Fifthly, government functions are more likely to face market tests; in other words' separation of ‘steering from rowing’ (Savas, 1987). The argument here is that public management is sufficiently different from public administration to be regarded as a new paradigm. A new model of public management has effectively supplanted the traditional model of public administration, and the public sector in the future will inevitably be manageable, in both theory and practice (Hughes, 2003:43). Doctrinesof new public managementNPM is depicted as a normative conceptualization of public administration consisting of several inter-related components: providing services that citizens value; increasing the autonomy of public managers; rewarding organizations and individuals on the basis of whether they meet demanding performance targets; making available the human and technological resources that managers need to perform well; and, appreciative of the virtues of competition, maintaining an open minded attitude about which public purposes should be performed by the private sector, rather than a public sector (Borins, 1995: 12; Sarker, 2005:250). NPM was characterized by policy- administration dichotomy, hierarchical and centralized decision-making structure, top-down approach, and too many regulations (Sarker, 2005:250). The combination of critiques of the inefficiency of the bureaucracy and the nature of the activist government produced a reform model usually designated as NPM (Hood, 1991). There are other names as well in the literature such as managerialism (Pollitt, 1990), market-based public administration (Lan and Rosenbloom, 1992) entrepreneurial government (Osborne and Gaebler, 1992) and post-bureaucratic m o d e l (Barzelay, 1992). NPM calls for changes and evolves in the structure of public organizations that consists of several interrelated factors considered below: Transformation of public sectorThe advent of public management marks a shift from earlier reforms. It is clearer both in theory and in program details than earlier reforms which aimed at tinkering to cut costs. New public management
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