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7Divorce: a series of stressful experiences for the entire family that begins with marital difficulties before the divorce and includes a complex series of life changes as the marriage unravels and its members reorganize their lives.8Describe the stress level of caring for a toddler. oStresses & strains of caring for a toddler MORE than for an infant9Older siblings tend to take what three roles in the lives of younger siblings? 625.1. Emotional support626. - Brothers and sisters confide in one another, often more than they confide in their parents. 627. - they protect and comfort one another in rough times. 628.2. Caregiving Services629. - they babysit and tend young children. 630.3. Teachers631. - Although older brothers and sisters are not always as skilled at teaching as parents are, they clearly feel a special responsibility to teach, and younger siblingsactively seek their guidance on any number of things.632.- provide social experience.633.- Having at least one sibling to interact with has positive effects on a child's social cognitive development and social skill1Sibling relationships are described by two terms – what are they? Closeness and conflict (sibling rivalry)2Marriage happiness highs and lows. 634.-Satisfaction LOWSoccur after first year, on becoming new parents, and witheach additional child 635.-HIGHSbefore children and after empty nest1What is the empty nest syndrome? odescribes the family after the departure of the last childoa phase of the family life cycle that became common only starting in the 20th century as people began to live longer but have fewer children2What factors predict a better adjustment to parenting?
636.-active participant637.-nurturer638.-teacher639.-communicator1What is a‘crowded nest’ – see also short article posted on Canvas.oTwenty something year olds moving back in with their parents(27% of adult children live with their parents)640.641.Achievement Ch. 101InstinctsoFAPs- fixed pattern throughout a specieso“Unlearned”oGenetic, inheritedoExamples: imprinting reflexes: rooting and sucking2Drives vs. incentives (know examples) , oDrives: internal, physiological needs that drive the organism to engage in behaviors which reduce the need (hunger, thirst, etc)oIncentives: are external positive or negative environmental stimuli, rewards and punishments, and can be conditioned1drive-reduction theory:oDrive-reduction theoryNeeds or desires that serve to energize and direct behavior toward a goal Drive states-are created by needswhich are internal or incentiveswhich are externalPhysiological needs create psychological drive states that causeone to engage in behaviors that will reduce or satisfy the needThe aim of drive reduction is stability or homeostasis/reduce arousal Drive states are arousingThe behavior caused by the “drive-state” satisfies the need; arousal is then reduced Needs(internal) (push)Create psychological states (drive/arousal)Cause behaviors which reduce the need and decrease the driveHomeostasisis maintainedBalance, equilibrium, steady stateHunger, thirst, body temperatureSurvivalIncentive