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Problem: one must adhere to its program you cannot choose certain aspects Cannot cherry pick which positions you agree/disagree with You must adhere with all its positions Activists could try and change things from the inside Adhering to a political party reduces activist possibilities/ freedom to think/act independently Party activists not adhering to the line are often penalized by the head of the line Some will even be excluded from political parties Accused of disarray when activists publicly disagree with the party In democratic political parties the party leader themselves can be held hostage to the party platform b/c of the rigidity of political parties and the strictness of following/agreeing with the platform social debates will occur in extra parliamentary organizations (ex. Pressure groups, think tanks, labour unions, non-government organization (NGO)) political party as an organization that sparks debate are discussed outside political parties then arrive within political parties most political debates do not occur within political parties (b/c some parties are totalizing) vehicles for political power = important debates will not occur? Effects of political parties on representative government Political parties transform representative government o1. Type of person who obtains political office political parties open up the system + people other than the wealthy to old public office ordinary people would become good party activists, climb the ladder, and take over office party democracy was to represent the demise of the notable (superior/wealthy citizen that was wanted to hold public office) party activism = the common citizen was now supposed to take power 1911: Robert Michels, will show in his study of political parties, the real gap between the leadership and the activists demonstrates that the commoner can hope to become a public office holder through the distinction of party activism and rouse to ďeĐoŵe aŶ eleĐted offiĐial, ͞the ĐoŵŵoŶer ĐaŶŶot reŵaiŶ a ĐoŵŵoŶer͟Michels comes to the conclusion by study working class parties (SPD) Notices gap between leaders and ordinary people Parties based on the working class will generate party elites that have little in common with the average activist find more resources at oneclass.comfind more resources at oneclass.com
His study makes a persuasive case that political parties do not represent democracy but replaces the rule of the notable with the rule of the party activist/bureaucrat * Political parties open up a new competition among elites Introduction of political parties modifies representative government Allows a new type of elite to hold power exemplary activist o2. Transforms relationship of decisions of public office holders and the will of the citizens relationship between representative and electors

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