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efficacy are more likely to lessen their effort or give up altogether whereas those with high self-efficacy will try harder to master the challenge. Additionally, individuals high in self-efficacy seem to respond to negative feedback with increased effort and motivation and those low in self-efficacy are likely to lessen their effort when given negative feedback.The reinforcementtheory, which is a counterpoint to goal-setting theory, proposes that behavior is a function of its consequences. Reinforcement theorists see behavior as being environmentally caused. They also say that reinforcers controls behavior; any consequence that, when immediately following a response, increases the probability that the behavior will be repeated. The behaviors that one engages in at work and the amount of effort that is allocated to each task are affected by the consequences that follow from one’s behavior. For example, if an employee is consistently reprimanded for outproducing their colleagues, they will likely reduce their productivity.Equitytheory recognizes that individuals are concerned not only with the absolute amount of rewards for their efforts, but also with the relationship of this amount to what others receive. Individuals make judgments as to the relationship between their inputs and outcomes and the inputs and outcomes of others. Based on one’s inputs, such as effort, experience, education, and competence, one compares outcomes such as salary levels, raises, recognition, and other factors. When people perceive an imbalance in their outcome-input ratio relative to others, tension is created. This tension provides the basis for motivation, as people strive for what they perceive as equity and fairness.Victor Vroom’s Expectancytheory says an employee is motivated to exert a high level of effort when he or she believes effort will lead to a good performance appraisal or an organizational reward such as a bonus or a promotion. More formally, this theory says that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. Expectancy theory focuses on the three following relationships: effort-performance; performance-reward; and rewards-personal goals relationship. The key to expectancy theory is the understanding of a person’s goals and the linkage between the three previously mentioned relationships. This theory recognizes that there is no universal principle for explaining everyone’s motivationsAccording to Herbert Simon's bounded rationalitytheory, individuals pick the first choice that meets a predetermined acceptance criteria. The ability to consider only some of the alternatives, or only some of the information required to evaluate a possible course of action is called bounded rationality. Simon believed that people have limited cognitive abilities and often have to deal with an overwhelming amount of information. Consequently they tend to take cognitive