Determine the appropriate measure to be displayed
For a column bar chart, locate the categories on the
horizontal axis. For a horizontal bar chart, place the
categories on the vertical axis. Then construct bars, either

vertical or horizontal, for each category such that the
length or height corresponds to the value for the category.
Interpret the results.
Pie Charts: a graph in the shape of a circle. The circle is divided into
“slices” corresponding to the categories or classes to be displayed. The
size of each slice is proportional to the magnitude of the displayed
variable associated with each category or class.
Steps:
Define the categories for the variable of interest.
Determine the appropriate measure or value. The value is
assigned to each category is the proportion the category is
to the total for all categories.
Construct the pie chart by displaying one slice for each
category that is proportional in size to the proportion the
category value is to the total of all categories.
Quantitative Data:
Stem and Leaf Diagrams
Steps:
Sort the data from low to high.
Analyze the data for the variable of interest to determine
how you wish to split the values into a stem and a leaf.
List all possible stems in a single column between the
lowest and highest values in the data.
For each stem, list all leaves associated with the stem.
2.3 Line Charts and Scatter Diagrams
Line Chart: a twodimensional chart showing time on the horizontal axis and the
variable of interest on the vertical axis.
Ex. how the price of stock has changed over the last 3 months
Steps:
Identify the timeseries variable of interest and determine the
maximum value and the range of time periods covered in the data.
Construct the horizontal axis for the time periods. Construct the
vertical axis with a scale appropriate for the range of values.
Plot the points of the graph and connect them with straight lines.
Scatter Diagram (Plot): A twodimensional graph of plotted points in which the
vertical axis represents values of one quantitative variable and the horizontal axis
represents values of the other quantitative variable. Each plotted point has
coordinates whose values are obtained from the respective variables.
Dependent Variable: a variable whose values are thought to be a function
of, or dependent on, the values of another variable called the
independent
variable
. On a scatter plot, the dependent variable is placed on the y axis
and is often called the response variable.

Independent Variable: a variable whose values are thought to impact the
values of the
dependent variables
. The independent variable, or
explanatory variable, is often within the direct control of the decision
maker. On a scatter plot, the independent variable, or explanatory
variable, is graphed on the x axis.

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- Fall '11