2 s triving for p erformance data were nach in

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2: S TRIVING FOR P ERFORMANCE data were collected/interpreted nAch in particular PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Process Theories = help us understand actual ways in which ppl can be motivated (how to motivate ppl)
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P ART 2: S TRIVING FOR P ERFORMANCE Expectancy Theory = individuals act depending upon their evaluation of whether their effort will lead to good performance, whether good performance will be followed by a given outcome, and whether the outcome is attractive to them Expectancy Effort → Performance = belief that effort is related to performance (one’s perception of how probable it is a certain amount of effort will lead to good performance) - Range: 0 ~ 1 - Influenced by: - self-esteem - previous success - help from supervisors and subordinates - info - proper materials and equipment Instrumentalit y Performance → Rewards = belief that performance is related to rewards (one’s perception of whether performing at a certain level will lead to desired outcome & be recognized by someone w/ power to allocate rewards) - Range: -1 ~ +1 (-ve → high performance ↓ chances of getting desired outcome; 0 → no relationship btwn performance & receiving desired outcome) e.g. low motivation b/c employee believes that no matter how hard he works, performance won’t be recognized Valence Rewards → Personal Goals = value or importance that one places on a reward (degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s personal goals/needs, and the attractiveness of those potential awards for the individual) - Range: -1(very undesirable award) ~ +1(very desirable) - some managers assume all employees want the same thing, thus overlook motivational effects of differentiating rewards - most research (including cross-cultural) supports this theory How to inc. motivation using Expectancy Theory? Improving Expectancy Improving Instrumentality Improving Valence improve ability of individual to perform (skills, training, assign reasonable task/goals) inc one’s belief that perfmnce leads to reward (recognize perfmnce, deliver rewards as promised, indicate how previous good performance led to greater rewards) make sure that the reward is meaningful to individual (ask what rewards they value, give rewards that are valued) goal = what an individual is trying to accomplish Management by Objectives (MBO) = approach to goal setting, specific measurable
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P ART 2: S TRIVING FOR P ERFORMANCE Goal-Setting Theory: Management by Objectives (MBO) consistent w/ Expectancy Theory: goal→ E-P feedback→ P-R goal setting→ R- G goals are jointly set by managers and employees; progress on goals is periodically reviewed, rewards are allocated on basis of this progress Locke’s Model of Goal Setting: goals motivating by… Direct attention – goals indicate where one should direct their efforts when they’re choosing among things to do e.g. assignment due in a few days, u say no to friends’ invitation to movie Regulate effort – goals suggest how much effort one should put into a task e.g. if high mark in ACCT is more important than in OB, u put more effort in
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