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Relational contracts collectivists value harmony

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relational contracts - Collectivists value harmony among members more than individualists do - N Americans prefer problem-solving (win-win solution) & legal contract after negotiations - Japan: non-confrontational style - Westerners: more comfortable w/ competition (forcing) Third-Party Conflict Resolution - sometimes ppl reach a stalemate, unable to resolve their differences Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) – 3 rd party helps both sides find a solution outside court ADR Strategies Facilitation facilitator (usually acquainted w/ both parties) suggests that 2 parties work together to resolve the issue - informal solution aimed @ getting both parties to talk directly w/ each other Conciliation conciliator = trusted 3 rd -party who provides informal communication link btwn negotiator & opponent - use in international, labour, family, community disputes - also engage in fact-finding, interpret msg’s, persuade disputants to develop agreements 1.when agreement not reached, bring in conciliation officer 2. sometimes used so union can reach legal strike position (or management: lockout) 3.if dispute cannot be resolved thru conciliation, wait for strike/lockout 4.then mediator can be called in to use more power to solve the dispute Ombudsperson = person that hears disputes btwn parties (before formal procedures are taken) - impartial, widely respected, trusted - investigates issue confidentially & tries to arrange solution - advantage: parties can avoid going thru formal org. channels for resolution (which can escalate differences btwn parties, lead to greater conflict) Peer Review panel of peers put together to hear both sides of the issue from parties involved & recommend solution - objective in listening & making recommendation, decision (may/may not be binding) Mediation meditator = neutral, noncoercive 3 rd party who facilitates negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion, suggestions for alternatives - can be more aggressive in proposing solutions than conciliators - widely used in labour-management negotiations & civil-court disputes
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P ART 3: I NTERACTING E FFECTIVELY - @ workplace, “fairness” committee handle grievances - conflict intensity cannot be too high – most effective under moderate levels Arbitration arbitrator = 3 rd party to a negotiation who has the authority to dictate an agreement - authority varies according to rules of negotiators - can be voluntary (requested) or compulsory (forced on parties by law/contract) - big advantage over mediation: ALWAYS results in settlement - however, conflict may resurface later b/c arbitrator may be too oppressive CONFLICT OUTCOMES Agreement equitable & fair agreements – best outcome. if one party feels exploited/defeated → further conflict Stronger relationships when conflict resolved +vely → better relationships & greater trust Learning handling conflict successfully teaches one how to do it better next time opportunity to practice conflict handling skills - constructive (improve quality of decisions, stimulate creativity, encourage curiosity, etc) - prevent groupthink - challenge status quo, support creation of new ideas - promote reassessment of group goals & activities - inc. probil’y that group will respond to change *Research confirms that conflict can be functional & improve productivity e.g. groups composed of members w/ diff. interests tend to produce higher quality solutions
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