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d. A response that operates on the environment to produce certain consequences e. A stimulus or event that increases the probability that the response it follows will be repeatede.All but which of the following are primary reinforcers?a. air, food, and water b. relief from pain c. money d. sexual stimulation e. novel visual stimulic.In operant conditioning, positive reinforcement ______ the likelihood of repeating a response, negative reinforcement ______ the likelihood of repeating a response, and punishment ______ the likelihood of repeating a response.a. strengthens; weakens; weakens b. strengthens; strengthens; weakens c. weakens; strengthens; strengthens d. strengthens; weakens; strengthens e. strengthens; strengthens; strengthensb.Who is most closely associated with the study of conditioned emotional reactions?
a. John Watson b. Ivan Pavlov c. John Garcia d. B.F. Skinner e. Robert Rescorlaa.Maintenance rehearsal isa. connecting to-be-remembered information with already-stored information. b. synonymous with chunking. c. picturing an object, pattern, or image in your mind. d. consciously repeating information over and over again. e. synonymous with whole rehearsal.d.Which brain structure plays an important role in encoding fear and anger?a. amygdala b. hippocampus c. cortex d. hypothalamus e. brainstema.Experts suggest that college students distribute their study sessions throughout the semester rather than preparing for exams by cramming. This means that college students should use which approach to memorization?
a. spaced practice b. overlearning c. distributed learning d. massed practice e. delayed practicea.An organized knowledge structure reflecting one's past experiences and future expectations is called aa. memory schema. b. stereotype. c. semantic network. d. phonological loop. e. reconstructed memory.a.The best memory usually results from which type of encoding?a. semantic b. verbal c. echoic d. acoustic e. visuala.The serial position effect occurs when peoplea. remember the first and last things in a list the best.
b. remember the first things in a list the best. c. remember things they learn first better than things they learn last. d. remember the last things in a list the best. e. have difficulty remembering the first and last things in a list.a.Your memory for general world information (e.g., state capitals, U.S. presidents) is stored ina. semantic memory. b. episodic memory. c. retrospective memory. d. prospective memory. e. short-term memory.a.Proactive inference occurs whena. newer memories interfere with older memories. b. items in the middle of a list interfere with memorizing the first and last items. c. less frequently experienced events interfere with more frequently experienced events. d. older memories interfere with newer memories. e. more frequently experienced events interfere with less frequently experienced events.