John Marshall part of army later chief justice of the Supreme Court America as

John marshall part of army later chief justice of the

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John Marshall: part of army (later chief justice of the Supreme Court), “...America as my country, and Congress as my government”. Influential economic interests wanted stronger national gov’t. Sept 1786: delegates from 6 states met at Annapolis, MD to regulate interstate & international commerce. Proposed in Philly by states (not Rhode Island) to amend the Articles of Confederation. Shays’s Rebellion strengthened the nationalists' cause. Without a change in gov’t, anarchy or monarchy likely to happen. May 1787: scrapped Articles of Confederation, made draft for constitution. A New Constitution Constitutional Convention : 55 men, GW, George Mason, Ben Franklin (no TJ or John Adams). Men of “ability, weight, and experience”. Delegates: educated, rich, had common belief in national authority. Ideas were in private (Madison believed result would affect liberty globally) not published until 1840 (4 yrs after Madison, the last delegate alive, died).
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The Structure Of Government Constitution would make legislature, executive, & national judiciary. Congress would have power to raise money without relying on states. States prohibited from infringing on the rights of property. Gov’t rep the people. Hamilton proposed president & Senate have life terms, got no support. Most delegates wanted to find middle ground b/t monarchy & aristocracy. Key to stable, effective republican gov’t was finding a way to balance competing claims of liberty and power. The Limits Of Democracy Choosing House of Reps reped expansion of democracy (popular election). Overall less-than-democratic structure, delegates sought to shield national gov’t from popular enthusiasms, made sure the right kind of man held office. People remain sovereign, but choose among elite to staff new gov’t. Delegates assumed Senate would be made of each state's best citizens. House of Reps small (65 members), though only prominent people could win election. Members of Supreme Court appointed by the president for life terms. President would be chosen by members of electoral college or House of Reps. Number of electors for each state determined by adding together its amount of senators & reps. Electors: prominent, educated people better than ordinary voters. Elector cast votes for 2 candidates for president, 2nd place is vice. If no candidate got majority, pres chosen from top 3 finishers by House of Reps, each state cast a vote. Senate then elects vice. Indirect election because delegates didn’t trust ordinary voters to choose the pres and vice directly. The Division And Separation Of Power Constitution: 4k words, gave briefest outline of new structure of gov’t. 2 basic political principles: federalism ( division of powers ) & system of checks & balances between different branches of national gov’t ( separation of powers ).
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