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MKTG Exam 2 Study Guide 6 7 8 9 10

Culture is pervasive functional learned and dynamic

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Culture is pervasive, functional, learned and dynamic. Core American values: success, materialism, freedom, progress, youth, capitalism, convenience. Subculture results in considerable variation within a culture. 2
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Social Class – part of culture Social class is typically measured as a combination of occupation, income, education, wealth and other variables. Useful for media and distribution decisions – where to find them Social Factors Reference Groups : A group in society that influences an individual’s purchasing behavior. Several types of reference groups – Exhibit 6.5 Opinion Leaders Features More likely to purchase new products early More likely to serve as information sources to others Particularly useful in launching new products The Family Roles – initiator, influencer, decider, purchaser, user Personality, Self-Concept, and Lifestyle Gender, age and family life cycle Personality Typical personality traits such as defensiveness, sociability, and autonomy Self-concept (or self-perception) Ideal self-image vs. real self-image Lifestyle Refers to the mode of living as identified by the person’s activities, interests, and opinions. Perception Perception is the process that people select, organize, and interpret incoming stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture Stimuli from the five senses The perception process affects consumers’ attention, comprehension, and memory The Three Selective Processes of Perception Selective Exposure “There is too much noise!” People tend to notice stimuli that relate to a current need they anticipate have a bigger deviation from the normal Selective Distortion people explain/understand things to support their preconceptions “half empty” vs. “half full” cup 3
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Selective Retention people remember those aspects that support their beliefs and attitudes “that’s what I remembered” Motivation Motives are the driving forces that cause a person to take action to satisfy specific needs Maslow’s Theory needs are hierarchical from very basic to higher levels reasonable attainment of each level is necessary before moving to a higher level Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Five levels – often related to product or advertising appeals Learning The process that creates changes in behavior through experience and practice - experiential vs. conceptual. Stimulus, response, and reinforcement (+ or -) Must understand for product development and promotion messages Beliefs and Attitudes Belief is our opinion about an object based on experience, advertising, and discussion with other people do not necessarily involve liking or disliking cognitive process Attitude is a learned tendency to respond consistently toward a give object are either favorable or unfavorable has action implications shaped by beliefs emotional process Change Attitude by Working on Beliefs Problem
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