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Osmotic and hydrostatic pressures regulate continuous

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Osmotic and hydrostatic pressures regulate continuous exchange and mixing of fluidsWater moves freely along osmotic gradientsAll body fluid osmolality is almost always equalChange in solute concentration of any compartment leads to net water flow↑ ECF osmolality → water leaves cell↓ ECF osmolality → water enters cell*** the body is always tending to lose water to the environment, so the body has “invested” in waterconservation and acquisition mechanisms.2.Describe the feedback mechanism that regulate fluid intake and loss.
Regulation of Water Intake1. The thirst mechanism is triggered by a decrease inplasma osmolality, which results in a dry mouth andexcites the hypothalamic thirst center.2. Thirst is quenched as the mucosa of the mouth ismoistened and continues with distention of the stomachand intestines, resulting in inhibition of thehypothalamic thirst center.Regulation of Water Output1. Drinking is necessary because there is obligatorywater loss due to the insensible water losses, water lostwith food residues and feces, and a minimum 500 mlsensible water loss in urine, due to the demand to flushurine solutes.2. Beyond obligatory water losses, solute concentrationand volume of urine depend on fluid intake, diet, andwater losses by other routes.Influence of Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)1. The amount of water reabsorbed in the renalcollecting ducts is proportional to ADH release.When ADH levels are low, most water in thecollecting ducts is not reabsorbed, resulting inlarge quantities of dilute urine.

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Term
Winter
Professor
Dr.T.D.Fridgen
Tags
pH, Bicarbonate, alkalosis

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