found alternatives 2 Limited review of alternatives focus on alternatives

Found alternatives 2 limited review of alternatives

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found alternatives 2. Limited review of alternatives – focus on alternatives, similar to those already in effect 3. Satisficing – selecting the first alternative that is “good enough” 3. Intuitive Decision Making Intuitive decision making: A non-conscious process created out of distilled experience Increases with experience Can be a powerful complement to rational analysis in decision making Common Biases and Errors Overconfidence Bias o As managers and employees become more knowledgeable about an issue, the less likely they are to display overconfidence Anchoring Bias o A tendency to fixate on initial information and fail to adequately adjust for subsequent information Confirmation Bias o Seeking out information that reaffirms our past choices and discounting information that contradicts past judgments Availability Bias o Basing judgments on information that is readily available Escalation of Commitment o Staying with a decision even when there is clear evidence that it is wrong Risk Aversion o Preferring a sure thing over a risky outcome Hindsight Bias o Believing falsely that we could have predicted the outcome of an event after that outcome is already known Organizational Constraints on Decision Making
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Performance evaluations Reward systems Formal regulations System-imposed time constraints Historical precedents Ethical Frameworks for Decision Making Utilitarianism Provide the greatest good for the greatest number Rights Make decisions consistent with fundamental liberties and privileges Justice Impose and enforce rules fairly and impartially so that there is equal distribution of benefits and costs Creativity in Organizations Creativity: The ability to produce novel and useful ideas Helps people: o See problems others can’t see o Better understand the problem o Identify all viable alternatives o Identify alternatives that aren’t readily apparent Three-Stage Model of Creativity Creative Behavior Steps: 1. Problem formulation : identify a problem or opportunity that requires a solution as yet unknown 2. Information gathering : possible solutions incubate in an individual’s mind 3. Idea generation : develop possible solutions from relevant information and knowledge 4. Idea evaluation : evaluate potential solutions and identify the best one Causes of Creative Behavior Cause of creative behavior: 1. Creative potential o Expertise is the single most important predictor of creative potential 2. Creative environment o Motivation o Rewards and recognition Creative Outcomes Creative outcomes: ideas or solutions judged to be novel and useful by relevant stakeholders Chapter 7: Motivation Concepts What Is Motivation? Motivation: The processes that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining an organizational goal Intensity: the amount of effort put forth to meet the goal Direction: efforts are channeled toward organizational goals Persistence: how long the effort is maintained Early Theories of Motivation
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  • Spring '14
  • creative behavior

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