Ovarian cancer is very difficult to diagnose and treat because symptoms are indistinct in the early stage and is usually diagnosed until the late stage when prognosis is poor and treatment is ineffective (Huether & McCance, 2012). Ovarian cancer ranks fifth in cancer deaths among women, and mainly develops in older women (American Cancer Society, 2016a). A woman's risk of getting ovarian cancer is about 1 in 75, and the chance of dying from ovarian cancer is about 1 in 100 (American Cancer Society, 2016a). The cause of ovarian cancer is unknown, but may be related to ovulation mechanisms and exposure of cancer-causing substances passing through the vagina reaching the fallopian tubes and ovaries (Huether & McCance, 2012). Ovarian cancer may cause several signs and symptoms, and women are more likely to have symptoms once the disease has spread beyond the ovaries (American Cancer Society, 2016a). The most common symptoms include: bloating, pelvic or abdominal pain, trouble eating or feeling full quickly, and urinary urgency or frequency (American Cancer Society, 2016a). AgeOvarian cancer mainly develops in older women, and about half of the women who are diagnosed with ovarian cancer are 63 years or older (American Cancer Society, 2016). Testicularcancer occurs most commonly in men between the ages of 15 and 35 years (Huether & McCance, 2012). ReferencesAmerican Cancer Society. (2016a). Ovarian Cancer. Retrieved from
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