The BARS approach uses a series of 5 to 10 vertical scales. Each one represents an important performance indicator as revealed from the job analysis. Each indicator is controlled by a critical incidents job analysis. The critical incidents are then assigned a point value according to the raters. The behavior observations scales (BOS) analyzes the frequency of observed behavior in the employee whereas the behavioral checklist method requires the rater to check off the statements that are indicative of the employee’s performance. Like the Behavioral Anchored Rating Scale (BARS), this system relies on critical incidents (unusual job behavior that is exceptionally good or exceptionally poor), but it differs from BARS in that the rater should record the regularity with which the good or bad behavior occurs. The results method simply measures the employee’s achievements and so can be unreliable in the long-term. As a consequence, the management by objectives method has been developed to overcome the drawbacks of the results method. The Management by Objectives (MBO) method assesses the employee’s performance based on achievements measured against previously agreed goals established by the employee and manager together. The trait methods are easy to develop and complete but it can be subjective and is not useful for feedback, whereas the behavioral methods are more detailed in enabling feedback but are expensive and time -consuming. Behavioral methods are detailed, so they take longer to create and complete--hence the higher cost. Management by Objectives is a program that encompasses specific goals, participatively set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress. Management by Objectives (MBO) emphasizes participatively set goals that are tangible, verifiable, and measurable. MBO focuses on converting overall organizational objectives into specific objectives for organizational units and individual members. Each person has an identifiable and specific contribution to be made. If each individual achieves their goals, then their unit’s goals will be attained and the organization’s overall objectives will become a reality. Four ingredients are common to MBO programs: goal specificity, participative decision making, an explicit time period, and performance feedback.
In the late 1960’s and early 1970’s organizations became obsessed with management by objectives . Management by objectives (MBO), is based on Peter Drucker’s admonition that management can only be judged by results. Organizations began to develop objectives for their total structure: divisions and departments, sections and individuals. Supervisors were required to meet with employees individually and have them state objectives they would achieve during the next 3, 6, or 12 months.
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