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Four principles of bioethics 4 non maleficence

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Four Principles of Bioethics
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4) Non-maleficence circle6 do no harm circle6 affirms the need for medical competence Four Principles of Bioethics
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STUDENT EXERCISE
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Risks – all are equal circle6 1 in 33 chance that the fetus has a chromosomal abnormality circle6 3% chance that the fetus has a chromosomal abnormality circle6 97% chance that the fetus does not have a chromosomal abnormality
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What is a Genetic Test? circle6 “A genetic test is an analysis performed on human DNA, RNA, and/or chromosomes to detect heritable mutations, phenotypes, or karyotypes that cause or are likely to cause a specific disease or condition.” square4 Enhancing the Oversight of Genetic Tests: Recommendations of the SACGT; July 2000.
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What Else is a Genetic Test? circle6 “A genetic test also is the analysis of human proteins and metabolites circle6 to detect heritable or acquired genotypes, mutations, or phenotypes.” square4 Enhancing the Oversight of Genetic Tests: Recommendations of the SACGT; July 2000.
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“For many people at risk for a genetic disorder, the question of whether to pursue genetic testing is particularly troubling. The possibility of learning that one is not at high risk for breast cancer or Huntington disease must be tempered by the prospect that one must live with the opposite result” circle6 Smith, 1998 (Schneider, K. Counseling about cancer page 249).
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How are Genetic Tests Different? circle6 Genetic tests may be used for medical management AND/OR for personal decision- making circle6 Family planning circle6 Genetic test results often apply to other family members circle6 Patient’s right to know vs. relatives’ right not to know, and coercion circle6 Potential to discover non-paternity
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How are Genetic Tests Different? circle6 The stigma of genetic disease or carrier status circle6 Employment discrimination (GINA protects against this) circle6 Insurance discrimination circle6 Health insurance (GINA protects) circle6 Life and disability insurance (GINA does NOT protect)
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How are Genetic Tests Different? circle6 Predictive testing and what we don’t know circle6 Penetrance circle6 Occurrence of disease circle6 Variable expression circle6 Age of onset of disease circle6 Severity of disease or rate of progression
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How are Genetic Tests Different? circle6 Genetic testing should include informed consent, test interpretation, and follow-up medical and psychosocial services as indicated circle6 Genetic testing is often done only by specialized laboratories circle6 Clinical versus Research testing
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How Else are Genetic Tests Different? circle6 In order for genetic testing to yield meaningful results: circle6 multiple tests may be required circle6 family members may need to be tested circle6 a genetics consultation may be needed circle6 These services will entail additional costs circle6 Many insurance companies cover genetic consultations and genetic testing.
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How are Genetic Tests Different?
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