Ii positioning applications used for positioning

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ii. Positioning applications – used for positioning products. o McGuire’s psychological motives Motive classification more specific than Maslow’s. 2 categories: i. Internal motives: o Consistency – need for internal equilibrium or balance. Clarifies the need for a consistent marketing mix. o Causation – determine who or what causes the things that happen to us. Used primarily for analysing customer reactions to promotional messages in terms of credibility. o Categorisation – establish categories or mental partitions that provide frames of reference. E.g. pricing of R9.95 instead of R10 o Cues – observable cues or symbols that enable us to infer what we feel and know. Brand names on clothing. o Independence – feeling or self-governance or self-control. “Do your own thing” o Novelty – variety and difference. Variety seeking behaviour. ii. External motives o Self-expression – express self-identity to others o Ego defence – defend or protect our identities or egos o Assertion – increase self-esteem o Reinforcement – act in such a way that others will reward us 16
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o Affiliation – develop mutually satisfying relationships with others o Modelling – base behaviour on that of others. o Economic and emotional classification Rational – Economic motives are rational in nature. Often expressed as quantifiable. Emotional – include social and ego motives of Maslow and McGuire. Psychographics: o Psychographics – characteristics of individuals that describe them in terms of their psychological and behavioural make-up. o Psychographic research – attempts to assess customers on the basis of psychological dimensions as opposed to purely demographic dimensions. o Demographics allow us to describe who buys, while psychographics allow us to understand why they buy. Largely based on the values of the customer concerned. Marketing research: o Depth interviews – designed to reveal hidden, deep-seated motives and are derived from psychology. o Projective techniques – derived from psychoanalytic theory and enable marketers to identify motives of which consumers are not yet aware. Study unit 9 – Customer attitudes The nature of customer attitudes: o Consumer attitude – learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favourable or unfavourable way towards market-related objects, events or situations. o Attitudes are learned o Attitudes tend to be consistent. The ABC model of attitude: o According to this model of attitude, the individual’s attitude has 3 components: Affect (feelings), behaviour (actions) and cognition (beliefs). o Components of attitudes: Cognitive component i. Consists of a customer’s beliefs about an object, that is, their knowledge about it.
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