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FDR desegregated war industries.Truman desegregated the armed forces. Eisenhower sent the National Guard to Little Rock and signed two Civil Rights laws. Which of these three presidents was most influential in the increasing momentum of the Civil Rights movement?Defend your answer.
11Brown Decision…In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, they argued that segregation of black children in the public schools was unconstitutional because it violated the 14th Amendment's guarantee of "equal protection of thelaws." In May 1954, the Supreme Court agreed with Marshall and overturned the Plessy case. Writing for a unanimous Court, Chief Justice Earl Warren ruled that (1) "separate facilities are inherently unequal" and unconstitutional, and (2) school segregation should end with "all deliberate speed." Resistance in the South…To start with, 101 members of Congress signed the "Southern Manifesto" condemning the Supreme Court for a "clear abuse of judicial power." States fought the decision several ways, including the temporary closing of the publicschools and setting up private schools. The Ku Klux Klan made a comeback, and violence against blacks increased. This is when the situation in Little Rockoccurred and Eisenhower stepped in …continued from previous page…Main IdeasDefinitions/Explanations/NotesAnalysisSeeking to fulfill Reconstruction-era promises, civil rightsactivists and political leaders achieved some legal and political successes in endingsegregation, although progress toward equality was slow and halting.Following World WarII, civil rights activists utilized a variety of strategies — legal challenges, direct action, and nonviolent protest tactics — to combat racial discrimination.Montgomery Bus Boycott… In 1955, as a Montgomery, Alabama, bus took on morewhite passengers, the driver ordered a middle-aged black woman to give up her seat to one of them. Rosa Parks refused and her arrest for violating the segregation law sparked a massive African American protest in the form of a boycott of the city buses. The Reverend Martin Luther King Jr., minister of