b.Hierarchical groups can lead to resentment among those at the lower end of the status continuum. c.Large differences in status within groups are also associated with poorer individual performance, lower health, and higher intentions to leave the group. d.The concept of equity we presented in Chapter 6 applies to status. e.Groups generally agree within themselves on status criteria; hence, there is usually high concurrence in-group rankings of individuals. f.Managers who occupy central positions in their social networks are typically seen as higher in status by their subordinates, and this position translates into greater influence over the group’s functioning. g.Individuals can find themselves in conflicts when they move between groups whose status criteria are different, or when they join groups whose members have heterogeneous backgrounds.
h.When groups are heterogeneous or when heterogeneous groups must be interdependent, status differences may initiate conflict as the group attempts to reconcile the differing hierarchies. i.Do cultural differences affect status and the criteria that create it? The answer is a resounding “yes.” E.Group Property 4: Size1.The size of a group affects the group’s overall behavior, but the effect depends on the dependent variables: Smaller groups are faster at completing tasks than are larger ones. a.If the group is engaged in problem solving, large groups consistently do better. b.Large groups—a dozen or more members—are good for gaining diverse input. c.Smaller groups—seven members—are better at doing something productive with that input. 2.Social loafing is the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually. 3.A common stereotype about groups is that team spirit spurs individual effort and enhances overall productivity. a.In the late 1920s, a German psychologist named Max Ringelmann compared the results of individual and group performance on a rope-pulling task. b.Social loafing: i.Causes of Social Loafing(a)A belief that others in the group are not carrying their fair share.ii.Social loafing appears to have a Western bias. (a)It’s consistent with individualistic cultures, such as the United States and Canada that are dominated by self-interest. iii.Preventing Social Loafing(a)Set group goals, so the group has a common purpose to strive toward;(b)Increase intergroup competition, which again focuses on the shared outcome; (c)Engage in peer evaluation so each person evaluates each other person’s contribution;(d)Select members who have high motivation and prefer to work in groups, and (e)If possible, base group rewards in part on each member’s unique contributionsF.Group Property 5: Cohesiveness 1.Groups differ in their cohesiveness, “the degree to which members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group.” 2.The relationship of cohesiveness and productivity depends on the performance-related norms established by the group.