daughter cell fulfilling functions nervous system cells sendreceive signals

Daughter cell fulfilling functions nervous system

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daughter cell fulfilling functions – nervous system cells send/receive signals, “knowing” what to do communication- within the cell and with other cells, coordinate activities maintenance/repair of various parts of the cell; taking out “trash”
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what can cells do? acquire chemical energy ATP and use it to… maintain “homeostasis” and order -ie, constantly replace/update molecules as needed (via enzymes) reproduce carry out specialized functions make and release molecules (ie hormones, peptides) move or contract (prokaryotes; muscle cells) respond to the environment kill themselves if necessary regulate themselves (autonomy- choose what to do) ALL THE CAPABILITIES A CELL HAS ARE ENCODED IN ITS GENES! and carried out by many kinds of macromolecules…
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viruses are not cells viruses require CELLS (a host) to replicate, assemble made up of capsid (of proteins) surrounding nucleic acids can cause cell death or misregulation of important pathways (sometimes leads to cancer) Image from Graham Colm
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two different classes of cells: prokaryotic vs eukaryotic share: ALL CELLS ARE COMPLEX AND WELL-ORDERED molecular structure of plasma membranes, DNA molecular mechanisms for transcription, translation, metabolic and energy pathways, breaking down proteins differ by (some examples): membrane-bound organelles (like a nucleus) size complex intracellular communication and transport of molecules copy # of genes per cell, DNA organization
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prokaryotes bacteria and archaea a one-celled organism usually ~1 m m (.2-10) no nucleus or organelles do have circular DNA (nucleoid), plasma membrane, ribosomes, cytoplasm cell wall can be different shapes reproduce by fission some carry out photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation image from Ladyofhats studies in Esherichia coli (E. coli ) have revealed much about cell biology
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prokaryotes: bacteria and archaea structure similar to bacteria, but by DNA (16SrRNA) sequence they are related to eukaryotes. extremes of Archaea thermophiles (some can’t grow below 90 o C) halophiles require very high salt (Dead Sea or Great Salt Lake) phylogenetic tree of life LUCA 3.8 bya ~2 bya
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eukaryotes protists, fungi, plants, and animals can be one cell or many cells 10-30 m m (some bigger) membrane-bound nucleus with pores and linear chromosomes plasma membrane (plus cell wall in plants) many organelles complex cytoskeleton wide variety of shapes and sizes some sexual reproduction plants carry out photosynthesis plant cell animal cell Ladyofhats image
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organism organ tissue cells organelles molecules multicellular organisms
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multicellular organisms are made up of many different cell types
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In humans, which is the predominant cell type by number?
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  • Spring '14
  • David S. Goodsell, American Society for Cell Biology

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