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Determining if a population with known genotype

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-determining if a population with known genotype frequencies is in equilibrium -reproductive isolating mechanisms -what is a species? -how does speciation generally occur? -genetic load Plate tectonics -3 types of plate boundaries -how it relates to populations and fossils -Pangaea Earth History -eras periods epochs -the Cenozoic: what were the climatic trends in each period? What happened in each epoch? Dating techniques -relative -biostratigraphy Index fossils: what are they? How are they used? -stratigraphic superposition Law of Superposition -fluorine dating Piltdown hoax -absolute/chronometric (how old are they good for? how do they work? what materials are they used on?) -dendrochronology -radiometric
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-carbon 14 -radiopotassium (potassium-argon) -fission track -thermoluminescence -electron spin resistance -amino acid racemization -archaeomagnetism (kind of a combination of relative and absolute dating) -chrons/subchrons
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Muscles, Bones, and Teeth: (see PowerPoint and Whitehead Ch. 2) Movements Flexion/Extension Abduction/Adduction Pronation/Supination Anatomical Terminology Anatomical position Medial/Lateral Superior/Inferior Proximal/Distal Dorsal/Ventral differences between quadrupeds and bipeds Planes of the Body Vertical planes - sagittal plane (two lateral halves) - coronal plane (anterior and posterior) Horizontal plane - transverse plane (superior and inferior) Bone structure Bone types - long bones (diaphysis – medullary cavity and yellow marrow; epiphysis; metaphysis) - short, irregular, and flat bones Bone composition - cancellous/trabecular/spongy bone (interior of bone; red marrow) - cortical/compact bone (hard, dense exterior of bone) Bone Development Skeletogenesis and remodeling - osteoblasts - osteoclasts - osteocytes The Skeleton Postcranial vs. Cranial Axial vs. Appendicular Axial - skull (foramen magnum) - hyoid - vertebral column (7 cervical, 12 thoracic, and 5 lumbar vertebrae; 1 st cervical known as the atlas, 2 nd cervical as the axis) - sacrum and coccyx - sternum - ribs (12 pairs of ribs) Appendicular - upper limbs (scapulae; clavicles; humerus; radius; ulna; carpals-wrist; metacarpals-palm; phalanges-fingers) - lower limbs (femur; patella; tibia; fibula; tarsals – ankle; metatarsals – arch of foot; phalanges – toes) - pelvic girdle (os coxae – ilium, ischcium, pubis; sacrum; pubic symphysis) Teeth/Dentition Buccal Lingual Mesial Distal Interstitial Occlusal Dental formula (incisors-canines-premolars- molars) - catarrhine primates (2-1-2-3)
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