Preferred for infections caused by several gram positive bacilli like gangrene

Preferred for infections caused by several gram

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Preferred for infections caused by several gram-positive bacilli like gangrene (caused by Clostridium perfringens) tetanus (caused by Clostridium tetani), anthrax (caused by Bacillus anthracis), Syphilis (caused by T. pallidum)Once drug of choice for gonorrhea (N. gonorrhoeae) penicillin has been replaced by ceftriaxone as primary treatment.Penicillin is now limited to infections caused by non-pinicillinase-producing strains of N. gonorrhoeaAlso used prophylactily for Syphilis, Benzathine penicillin G for recurrent attacks of Rheumatic fever and for those with Rheumatic heart disease, bacterial endocarditis.oPharmacokineticsPenicillin G is absorbed as 4 salt
Potassium penicillin GProcaine penicillin GBenzathine penicillin GSodium penicillin GOral: obsolete, Penicillin GIM: all forms, however different salts are absorbed at different rates. The absorptions of potassium and sodium penicillin G is rapid blood levels peak in about 15 minutes after injection. Procaine and benzathine salts are absorbed slowly hence why they care considered repository preperations they are absorbed for weeks producing blood levels that are persistent but very low.IV: when high blood levels are needed rapidly penicillin can be administered IV, only for Potassium and Sodium salts, because Procaine and Benzathine salts have poor water solubility they should never be administered IV.Distribution: penicillin distributes well to most tissues and body fluids. In the absence of inflammation, penetration of the meninges and into fluid of joints and the eyes is poor, however in the presence of inflammation entry into cerebrospinal fluid, joints and eyes are enhanced, and permitting treatment of infections.Metabolism and Excretions: Penicillin undergoes minimal metabolism and is eliminated by the kidneys, primarily as the unchanged drug.oSide effect and ToxicitiesLeast toxic of all antibiotics and the safestReactions include pain at the site of IM injections, prolonged (reversible) sensory and motor dysfunction following accidental injections into peripheral nerve, neurotoxicity (seizures, confusion, hallucinations) if blood levels are too high.Inadvertent intra-arterial injection can produce severe reactions (gangrene, necrosis, sloughing of tissue) must be avoided.Compounds co-administered with penicillin can cause certain adverse effects.Procaine penicillin G: bizarre behavioral effects with large dosesLarge IV dose of Potassium Penicillin G administered rapidly can cause hyperkalemia, possible dysrhythmias and even cardiac arrest.Large IV doses administered rapidly of Sodium Penicillin G can cause electrolyte imbalances this one
should be used with caution with individuals on a sodium-restricted diet.

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