Following the E major passage the motto theme appears in A major and then a

Following the e major passage the motto theme appears

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Following the E major passage, the “motto” theme appears in A major, and then a four-bar theme emerges—it’s the counter-motive we heard initially in mm. 9-16. Using this “counter-motive” as a theme, Beethoven continues a harmonic progression of falling fifths, with root motion descending from A to D to G to C, and finally back to the home key of F major. And still, Beethoven has one last moment of exquisite magic in the Development. He prepares us for the Recapitulation, not with the expected C major dominant harmony (V), instead falling one more fifth from tonic, to the subdominant harmony ( IV ), B-flat major. It is a moment of sublime, transcendent release. Let’s pick up the Development section toward the end of the D major passage we just heard, and listen to the remainder of the Development with the score, continuing through the first five bars of the Recapitulation, so that we hear the return of the opening motto which marks the beginning of the Recapitulation. Symphony No. 6, First Movement In the Recapitulation and Coda of the first movement of the Sixth Symphony, Beethoven demonstrates that he has transcended the
Classical style, and there is no turning back. Yes, the themes of the Secondary Tonal Area are recapitulated in the tonic key, as expected. But nothing is quite the way it was before. Beethoven can barely bring himself to repeat any of his previous music literally, although we do hear a fairly literal repetition of the “motto” theme from the Principal Tonal Area (7:51 - 8:08). And when he has recapitulated all the material from the Exposition, he gives us a Coda that is far more than the “tail” we would expect in the Classical style. The “continuous development” of his thematic material continues through the Coda (9:37 - 11:27), and yet these final two minutes of music provide a most satisfying conclusion to the movement. To get the best perspective on this section, let’s listen again to the entire movement. This is not only an opportunity to enjoy the music, but also to practice informed listening—to listen for these structural markers and “hear” the formal organization of the music with which we are now familiar. Artist's Perspective: Timpani We will return to Beethoven’s Sixth Symphony, to experience the “thunderstorm” in the fourth movement. First, though, let’s learn more about some of the instruments of the orchestra. To help conjure the storm, Beethoven added timpani, trumpet, and alto and tenor trombones to the orchestra in the fourth movement. Right now, we’ll take time to hear from several of our performance faculty, to learn more about the percussion and brass sections of the orchestra. Let’s begin by hearing from Professor Dan Armstrong, to gain an artist’s perspective on the use of percussion instruments in the symphony orchestra.
Artists’ Perspectives: Brass Instruments Several years ago, two of our brass performance faculty members were recorded for our Evolution of Jazz course. Their emphasis was on the instrument’s role in jazz. But, of course, brass

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