all these countries is discussed in the separate reports on the Atlantic and Pacific markets.9Impacts of seaborne trade on coal importing countries – global summaryProduction trends in hard (steam and coking) coalsOECD PacificOECD North AmericaOECD Europenon-OECD totalHard coal production, Mt0100020003000400050006000700019711974197719801983198619891992199519982001200420072008 estimatedFigure 2 Global hard coal production (steam and coking coal), Mt/y (IEA, 2010b)
10IEA CLEAN COAL CENTRE3Global steam coal trendsHard coal (bituminous, anthracite and some subbituminous coal) production has been noticeablyaffected by a number of factors in OECD Europe. By 2008, production in OECD Europe haddecreased by a massive 70% over the previous three decades to just 124 Mtce. This was a reduction ofroughly 330 Mtce; a considerable contraction in the industry. Estimates for 2010 has seen productionfall further to 110 Mtce.Figure 3 charts the reduction in hard coal production in OECD Europe in ten-year intervals and showshow between 1978 and 2008, the contraction was not uniform across the period. While there wassome modest reduction in 1978-88, the period 1988-98 saw the biggest reduction, which was felt bythe coal industries in Poland, UK, Czech Republic and Germany. Smaller reductions occurred inBelgium and France, both of which experienced a steady reduction throughout the entire 30-yearperiod, but with a small industry base this led to a near disappearance of their mining industries.Since 1978, Poland and the UK lost some 85–100 Mtce of production due to restructuring,rationalisation and competition. Germany lost about 60 Mtce of production while the Czech Republichas contracted by 45 Mtce since 1978. By 1998, most of Europe’s industry experiencedrationalisation, but contraction continued in the UK, Germany, and Poland. Today, Poland remains thelargest producer of coal in Europe from its operation in the Silesian Basin. For many parts of OECDEurope, imported steam coal is now the sole source of supply; almost all coking coal is now imported.Whilst domestic coal production has ceased in a number of OECD European and Asian countries thepattern has been less evident in the USA, although regional shifts within the country have occurred.-250-200-150-100-50050SpainTurkeyUKGermanyHungaryPolandBelgiumCzech RepublicFrance1978 - 881988 - 981998 - 2008Hard coal production, MtceFigure 3 Change in OECD European hard coal production since 1978 (IEA, 2010)
Australia is the major OECD exception where production of hard coal continues to increase to meetthe growing seaborne-traded market. Elsewhere, growth in production to meet this export trade hascome from non-OECD economies. International trade is therefore a key part of OECD coalprocurement strategies, and even amongst non-OECD countries, imports are growing in importanceacross South East Asia, but most notably in China and India (see the reports covering the Pacificmarket).