9 Impacts of seaborne trade on coal importing countries global summary

9 impacts of seaborne trade on coal importing

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all these countries is discussed in the separate reports on the Atlantic and Pacific markets. 9 Impacts of seaborne trade on coal importing countries – global summary Production trends in hard (steam and coking) coals OECD Pacific OECD North America OECD Europe non-OECD total Hard coal production, Mt 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 1971 1974 1977 1980 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2008 estimated Figure 2 Global hard coal production (steam and coking coal), Mt/y (IEA, 2010b)
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10 IEA CLEAN COAL CENTRE 3 Global steam coal trends Hard coal (bituminous, anthracite and some subbituminous coal) production has been noticeably affected by a number of factors in OECD Europe. By 2008, production in OECD Europe had decreased by a massive 70% over the previous three decades to just 124 Mtce. This was a reduction of roughly 330 Mtce; a considerable contraction in the industry. Estimates for 2010 has seen production fall further to 110 Mtce. Figure 3 charts the reduction in hard coal production in OECD Europe in ten-year intervals and shows how between 1978 and 2008, the contraction was not uniform across the period. While there was some modest reduction in 1978-88, the period 1988-98 saw the biggest reduction, which was felt by the coal industries in Poland, UK, Czech Republic and Germany. Smaller reductions occurred in Belgium and France, both of which experienced a steady reduction throughout the entire 30-year period, but with a small industry base this led to a near disappearance of their mining industries. Since 1978, Poland and the UK lost some 85–100 Mtce of production due to restructuring, rationalisation and competition. Germany lost about 60 Mtce of production while the Czech Republic has contracted by 45 Mtce since 1978. By 1998, most of Europe’s industry experienced rationalisation, but contraction continued in the UK, Germany, and Poland. Today, Poland remains the largest producer of coal in Europe from its operation in the Silesian Basin. For many parts of OECD Europe, imported steam coal is now the sole source of supply; almost all coking coal is now imported. Whilst domestic coal production has ceased in a number of OECD European and Asian countries the pattern has been less evident in the USA, although regional shifts within the country have occurred. -250 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 Spain Turkey UK Germany Hungary Poland Belgium Czech Republic France 1978 - 88 1988 - 98 1998 - 2008 Hard coal production, Mtce Figure 3 Change in OECD European hard coal production since 1978 (IEA, 2010)
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Australia is the major OECD exception where production of hard coal continues to increase to meet the growing seaborne-traded market. Elsewhere, growth in production to meet this export trade has come from non-OECD economies. International trade is therefore a key part of OECD coal procurement strategies, and even amongst non-OECD countries, imports are growing in importance across South East Asia, but most notably in China and India (see the reports covering the Pacific market).
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