dents that their intelligence and academic achievement are within theirpower to affect.Perhaps the single most important factto remember when thinking about thefuture of the achievement gap is that wecan reduce the black-white gap in reading by more than a third, and the blackwhite gap in math by a half, in a matterof three years with a program whose expense is clearly within our reach. Are welikely to attempt it? It is not impossible.Continued reduction of the achievement gap is highly probable even if wedo little to change the status quo. If wewere to do the most that is within ourpower now, the gap would be drasticallyDcedalus, the Journal of the American Academy of Arts & SciencesThis content downloaded from 18.104.22.168 on Mon, 18 Mar 2019 02:33:11 UTCAll use subject to
reduced in a very short period of time.We can only hope that society comes tobelieve in the value of these investmentsand moves to implement them.ENDNOTES1 Richard E. Nisbett, Intelligence and How to Get It: Why Schools and Cultures Count (W.W. Norton, 2009).2 There is plenty of evidence, however, that blacks sometimes perform worse on Iachievement tests when their race is made salient. This engages a "stereotype thrcausing them to perform worse than they would in more relaxed settings where tare not afraid of confirming a stereotype held by white testers. See Claude M. St"A Threat in the Air: How Stereotypes Shape Intellectual Identity and PerformancAmerican Psychologist 52 (1997): 613 - 629; and Claude M. Steele and Joshua Arons"Stereotype Threat and the Intellectual Test Performance of African Americans,"nal of Personality and Social Psychology 69 (1995): 797 - 811.3 Arthur R. Jensen, Bias in Mental Testing (New York: Free Press, 1980).4 Audrey M. Shuey, The Testing of Negro Intelligence, 2nd ed. (New York: Social ScPress, 1966).5 Klaus Eyferth, "Leistungern verschiedener Gruppen von Besatzungskidern in HWechsler Intelligenztest fur Kinder (HAWIK)," Archivfiir diegesamte Psychologie 1222-241.6 Paul A. Witty and Martin D. Jenkins, "The Educational Achievement of a GroupNegro Children, "Journal of Educational Psychology 25 (1934): 585-597.7 Sandra Scarr, Andrew J. Pakstis, Solomon H. Katz, and William B. Barker, "AbseRelationship between Degree of White Ancestry and Intellectual Skills within aulation," Human Genetics 39 (1977): 69 - 86.8 John C. Loehlin, Steven G. Vandenberg, and R. Travis Osborne, "Blood-Group Negro-White Ability Differences," Behavior Genetics 3 (1973): 263 - 270.9 Sandra Scarr and Richard A. Weinberg, "The Minnesota Adoption Studies: Geneferences and Malleability," Child Development 54 (1983): 260 - 267; and Richardberg, Sandra Scarr, and Irwin D. Waldman, "The Minnesota Transracial AdoptioA Follow-up of IQ Test Performance at Adolescence," Intelligence 16 (1992): 117 -10 Elsie G.J. Moore, "Family Socialization and the IQTest Performance of TraditioTrans-Racially Adopted Black Children," Developmental Psychology 22 (1986): 31711 Joseph F. Fagan and Cynthia R. Holland, "Equal Opportunity and Racial DifferIQ," Intelligence 30 (2002): 361 - 387; and Joseph F. Fagan and Cynthia R. Hollan
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