Bilton, T. et al (1987). Introductory Sociology (2nd Edition) London, Macmillan Press Ltd. 20 Mason, K. O. (1986). ‘The Status of Women: Conceptual and Methodological Issues’ in Demographic Studies Sociological Forum.
of the society. These changes are mainly due to various effects of modernization through western cultures, education, internet/computer facilities, pop cultures, movies, cable news, and growth of cities, migration and accelerated change of the economy from subsistence to industrial 21 . Globalization, trade liberalization and increasing competition have transformed the social, economic and political landscape of the African and the Nigerian woman. These trends have been closely associated with a rapid increase in urbanization and women’s entry into the paid labor force and the growing visibility of women’s contribution to the economy. A woman’s domestic tasks have changed along with the change in the occupational structure of the society. Women are rapidly moving into fields once considered exclusive male specializations. They are found in such fields as politics, commerce, agriculture, industry and military, religious and educational institutions 22 . All over the world successive governments interventions through legislations and programmes have considerably improved the status of women. In Nigeria, the development of the national policy on women in the 1980’s was to facilitate the full integration of women into the development process. Women’s representation in social, political and economic life has improved and many laws against gender discrimination have been institutionalized. Nigerian governments continue to introduce measures to advance the status of women such as the establishment of the National Women Development Centre, Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development 12 . Other measures include the introduction of the Better Life Programme, Family Support Programme and the Family Economic Advancement Programme. The impact of these programmes is however, yet to be objectively and rigorously evaluated. Nigerian women have made significant 21 Hartmann, H. (1982). ‘Capitalim, Patriarchy and Job Segregation by Sex’ in Giddens and Held (eds) Classes and Conflict, Basingstoke, Macmillan. 22 Ware Susan (1989). Modern American Women: A Documentary History: USA; Donnelley & Sons Company.
21 Hartmann, H. (1982). ‘Capitalim, Patriarchy and Job Segregation by Sex’ in Giddens and Held (eds) Classes and Conflict, Basingstoke, Macmillan. 22 Ware Susan (1989). Modern American Women: A Documentary History: USA; Donnelley & Sons Company.
progress and development in their struggle for empowerment, equality and liberation since the end of formal colonial rule in 1960. Indeed, the struggle for the advancement of women’s rights started during colonial rule particularly in the 1920’s when women organized protests against colonial policies. Nevertheless, women in Nigeria still experience social, economic and political exclusion and deprivations   .
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