Anat of Arg Worksheet II

1 suppose theses philosophers are right and there are

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[1] Suppose theses philosophers are right, and there are no such things as desires or purposes . [2] What makes various things all members of the class Chair is that they are portable seats for one person (with a back). [3] Being a seat for one person is just being manufactured for the purpose of being sat upon by one person at a time . [4] If there are no ‘purposes’, then it is ‘mythology’ that all chairs have something in common. So [5] not only are there no such things as beliefs, if this view is right; there are no such things as chairs! Hilary Putnam Representation and Reality , p. 58 31. [1] (Prior to the formation of the State) nothing can be unjust. [2] The notions of right and wrong, justice and injustice have there no place. [3] Where there is no common power, there is no law: where no law, no injustice. [4] Justice, and injustice, are none of the faculties neither of the body, nor mind. [5] If they were, they might be in a man that were alone in the world, as well as his senses, and passions. [6] They are qualities, that relate to men in society, not in solitude. Thomas Hobbes Leviathan, English Works , 3, p. 113 32. [1] Whosoever therefore holds, that it had been best to have continued in that state [of nature] in which all things were lawful for all men, he contradicts himself. For [2] every man by natural necessity desires that which is good for him: [3] nor is there any that esteems a war of all against all, which necessarily adheres to 3
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such a state, to be good for him. [4] And so it happens, that through fear of each other we think it fit to rid ourselves of this condition, and to get some fellows; that if there needs must be war, it may not yet be against all men, or without some help. Thomas Hobbes Philosophical Rudiments, English Works , 2, p. 12 33. Why does [1] mixing one’s labor with something make one the owner of it? Perhaps because [2] one owns one’s labor, and so [3] one comes to own a previously unowned thing that becomes permeated with what one owns. [4] Ownership seeps over into the rest. But why isn’t [5] mixing what I own with what I don’t own a way of losing what I own rather than a way of gaining that I don’t? [6] If I own a can of tomato juice and spill it in the sea so that its molecules (made radioactive, so I can check this) mingle evenly throughout the sea, do I thereby come to own the sea, or have I foolishly dissipated my tomato juice? Robert Nozick Anarchy, State and Utopia, p. 174 34. [1] The history of science, like the history of all human ideas, is a history of irresponsible dreams, of obstinacy, and of error. But [2] science is one of the very few human activities--perhaps the only one--in which errors are systemically criticized and fairly often, in time, corrected. This is why we can say that, in science, [3] we often learn from our mistakes, and why [4] we can speak clearly and sensibly about making progress there. Karl Popper Conjectures and Refutations , p. 216 35.
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