3 httpwwwuicedu 1 3 chapter 1 kingdoms of life the 5

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CHAPTER 1: KINGDOMS OF LIFE THE 5 KINGDOMS OF LIFE Living organisms are subdivided into 5 major kingdoms . These including the; 1. Monera/ prokaryote 2. Protista (Protoctista) 3. Fungi 4. Plantae 5. Animalia Each kingdom is further subdivided into separate phyla or divisions . Generally "animals" are subdivided into phyla, while "plants" are subdivided into divisions. 1. Kingdom Monera Kingdom Monera consists of Prokaryotic Cells without nuclei and membrane bound organelles. These include Unicellular and colonial organisims; the true bacteria (Eubacteria) and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Kingdom Monera consists of more than 10,000 species. 2. Kingdom Protista (Protoctista) Unicellular protozoans and unicellular & multicellular (macroscopic) algae with cilia and flagella (called undulipodia). Protista consists of about 250,000 species 3. Kingdom Fungi Fungi have haploid and dikaryotic (binucleated) cells. They are multicellular and generally heterotrophic (decompose dead matter in our environment) The cells are without cilia nor flagella and are eukaryotic (with nucleus) There are more than 100,000 species. There are four phylum in the Fungi Kingdom. 1. Deuteromycota 2. Zygomycota 3. Ascomycota 4. Basidiomycota 4
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Kingdom Plantae [250,000 species] The Plant Kingdom is subdivided into 9 divisions; Four (4) divisions of Seedless Plants: Bryophyta (Mosses and Liverworts) - 20,000 species Sphenophyta (Horsetails) - 15 species Lycophyta (Club mosses) - 1,000 species Pterophyta (Ferns) - 12,000 species Five (5) divisions of Seeded Plants Gymnosperms (Naked Seeded) - that produce seeds on cones. Coniferophyta - 550 species Ginkophyta - 1 species Cycadophyta - 100 species Gnetophyta - 70 species Angiosperms (flowering Plants) - vascular plants that produce seeds enclosed inside a fruit. Anthophyta /Magnoliophyta (monocots and dicots) - 250,000 5 Kingdom Animalia All animals share the following characteristics; cannot make own food, digest their food, move from place to place, and have many Eukaryotic cells. Animals are classified into nine major phyla. Porifera Sponges Cnidaria Cnidarians Platyhelminthes Flatworms Nematoda Roundworms Molluska Mollusks Annelida Annelids Arthropoda Arthropods Echinodermata Echinoderms Chordata Chordates THE (6) SIX KINGDOM SYSTEM 5
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The latest research has divided all living things into 6 Kingdoms. The newest is Archaebacteria derived from Kingdom Monera. The prokaryotic Monera included three major divisions: The regular bacteria or Eubacteria ; the Cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae); and the Archaebacteria (Ancient bacteria). Kingdom Archaebacteria Archaebacteria are found in extreme environments such as hot boiling water and thermal vents under conditions with no oxygen or highly acid environments Kingdom Eubacteria Like archaebacteria, Eubacteria are complex and single celled. Most bacteria are in the EUBACTERIA kingdom. They are the kinds found everywhere and are the ones people are most familiar with.
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