Tear at the end of pregnancy and result in bright red

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tear at the end of pregnancy and result in bright red painless bleeding Abruptio Placentae -May occur following motor vehicle accident or spontaneously -Premature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall usually causes the bleeding -Blood may be trapped between placenta and uterine wall -Abdominal pain is common Blood Clotting Problems Thromboembolism: blood clots, common after childbirth and usually develops in veins of legs or pelvis Thrombophlebitis : clot forms over an inflamed area in the vein wall Embolus: if a piece of the thrombus breaks away it will flow with venous blood and may result in a pulmonary embolus Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation -Serious complications of other conditions- ex: abruptio placentaia, or pre-eclampsia -Increased activation of clotting mechanisms- results in multiple blood clots through circulation -Diagnosis confirmed by low serum levels in clotting factors -Hemorrhage, shock, and tissue ischemia Rh Incompatibility -Mother is Rh-negative and fetus is Rh-positive -Usually not a problem in first pregnancy -Rh-positive blood enters maternal circulation and forms maternal antibodies to Rh-
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positive blood -Subsequent pregnancies maternal antibodies destroy red blood cells -Hemolysis of RBC- severe anemia, low hemoglobin, jaundice, possible heart failure and death -Early birth or intrauterine transfusions may be recommended -Exchange transfusions after birth may be required Prevention: prenatal blood testing of women and, if Rh negative test her partner, monitor for Rh antibodies in maternal blood, and administer Rh antibodies within 48 hours of delivery or termination of pregnancy to neutralize Rh-positive cells in maternal blood thus, no immunologic memory to Rh-positive cells Maternal Infection: t he healing uterus and perennial tissues are vulnerable to infection during postpartum period -May lead to septic shock or peritonitis if untreated -Increased risk for infections: retained placenta, inadequate hygiene, and abortions in non-sterile conditions Adolescent Pregnancy -Teenagers have increased nutritional need to meet demands of their own growth -Pregnancy at this age has increased complication risk -Anemia and pregnancy induced hypertension are common problems -Babies born to adolescent mother frequently weigh less than normal or are preterm -Labor and delivery are difficult because of immature pelvis Chapter 17: Blood & Lymphatic Disorders The Diagnostic Tests for Blood : is the complete blood count, which includes total RBCs, WBCs, platelet counts and morphology (size and shape), a differential WBC count, hemoglobin and Hematocrit. Complete Blood Count (CBC) : Included total RBCs, WBCs, and platelets Leukocytosis : Increased WBCs- associated with inflammation or infections Leukopenia : Decreased WBCs- associated with some viral infections, radiation, or chemotherapy Increased Eosinophils: Common in allergic reactions Differential count for WBCs: Morphology : Observed in blood smears, shows size, shape, uniformity of cells,
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