Pharmacology portion of NCLEX review.odt

Enteral oral sublingual buccal rectal advantages

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Enteral: Oral, sublingual buccal, rectal advantages-convenient, cheap, good absorption disadvantages-slow effect, first pass, irritates gastric mucosa, unpleasant taste, cant use if unconscious. **Absorbed into circulation through the stomach/intestines. Never crush enteric coated medication, it protects the stomach by dissolving into the intestines. Sublingual and Buccal medications bypass the liver Parenteral: IM, SubQ, Intradermal, IV, Intraperitoneal, Intraurethral, Intraarticular, Intraartierial, Intramedullary. advantages- rapid, avoid gastric irritation disadvantages-must maintain Asepsis, painful, expensive, possible nerve damage, more dangerous Topical: Skin, eyes, ear, nose, and lungs advantages-high local concentration without systemic effects. Disadvantages-slow onset, local reactions, limited to few drugs. Inhalation: Through nose or mouth advantages-rapid onset, large surface area for absorption disadvantages-most addictive, hard to regulate dosage How should IVPB be hung? IVPB is hung higher than the primary infusions. How do you back prime? Lower partial-fill bag below injection port of primary IV. Open clamp set on secondary tubing, and allow solution from primary IV set to enter tubing, backfilling the tubing to drip chamber. How do you give an IM injection? 90 degrees 3mL .... Deltoid-2mL 22-27g needle 18-25g(thicker meds) Landmarks:
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6 deltoid- acromical process hip-greater trochanter 1mL every second Ask the patient: Have you ever taken the medication before? Are you allergic to anything? **Clean, aspirate, inject Remember: IM injections take longer to absorb Why is an IM injection no longer given in the dorsogluteal? Because of its relation to the sciatic nerve. How is a intradermal injection administered? When is it used? 5-15 degrees 25-27g needle TB skin test What is the preferred site for IM injections in adult and children? Ventrogluteal What are the two types of medications that should never be crushed? Enteric coated and suppositories List the routes that bypass the first pass effect. Inhalation, transdermal, sublingual, IV Medication from an ampule should be drawn up in what type of needle? Filter needle What is the site in which infants receive their immunizations? What are the landmarks? Vatus lateralis Greater trochanter of the femur When giving IM injections at any site, what are some age considerations? Body mass, age, akin How are ear drops for adults and children given? Adults-up and back Children-back and down When giving a nebulizer we should assess the patients baseline what? Pulse, O2, Resp. rate, breath sounds When a patient is using a steroid inhaler what should we educate the to ALWAYS do after use? Why do we do this? Rinse their mouth, it can cause thrush.
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