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Think chance luck or outside forces control their

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Think chance, luck, or outside forces control their fate Internal locus of control Think destiny is in their own hands Learned helplessness When people experience having no control over a bad event Harnessed dog example Trait Theories Assumes that traits are the major force behind personality Five-factor Model Extroversion – outgoing, sociable Neuroticism – anxious, self-conscious, pessimistic Agreeableness – sympathetic, cooperative, friendly Conscientious – dependable, productive, organized Openness – non-conforming, imaginative, adaptable Projective tests of personality Thematic Apperception Test Rorschach Inkblot Test Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Psychological Disorders Defining Psychological Disorders Deviant Different from the norm Distressing
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Must lead to discomfort, anxiety, anguish Either on the person or on the public Dysfunctional Interferes with that person’s everyday life Understanding Psychological Disorders Medical Model Assumes psychological disorders have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated,  and in some cases, cured through treatment Does not explain all disorders Biopsychosocial Approach  Biological, psychological, and social-cultural factors interact to produce specific  psychological disorders Classifying Psychological Disorders Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision  (DSM–IV–TR) Provides a comprehensive description of many disorders Axis I – Clinical Disorders Produce distress and limit/disturb function Come after adolescence Not consistent   fade in and out Axis II – Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation See in early childhood and/or before adolescence Part of that person   don’t fade Axis III – General Medical Condition Physical conditions that may be related to that persons psychological disorder Ex. Syphilis Axis IV – Psychological and Environmental Problems
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Specific problems in that persons life that impact diagnosis Stress, unemployed, unsupported, homeless Axis V – Global Assessment Taking into account how this person OVERALL is functioning Labeling Psychological Disorders Critics of the DSM–IV–TR argue that labels may stigmatize individual BUT, there are benefits to labels Anxiety Disorders Feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety Types: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) Chronic, excessive worrying for 6 months or more Anxiety is free-floating Often accompanied by physiological symptoms: Sweating, headaches, heart palpitations, insomnia More women are diagnosed than men Panic Disorder Experience of recurring, unpredictable, episodes of overwhelming anxiety, fear, or terror Panic attacks Agoraphobia – fear of situations where escape would be difficult Complication of panic attack A vicious cycle  Phobias
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