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Fat and amino acids can enter citric acid cycle another wayPancreatic hormones play a major role in glucose regulation Pancreas next to small intestine Duodenum is the last place that digestion occurs (a lot of juices from pancreas are released to duodenum)Pancreas has islet of Langerhans- there are endocrine alpha and beta cells Islet of LangerhansoReleases insulin and glucagon Glucagon (alpha cells) oReleased when blood sugar low oIncreases: Glycogenolysis (glycogen to glucose) Gluconeogenesis – turns shit into glucose Ketogenesis – brain runs on ketone bodies (diabetes 1 patients)oReleased when hungry Insulin (Beta cells) oReleased when blood sugar high 44
Glycogensis (glucose to glycogen) 45
Once insulin is released….. Insulin works on skeletal muscle and fat cells GLUT4 takes more glucose in Without insulin, glucose cant enter celloDiabetes 2- pancreas is working like crazy to release insulin but body does not respond Diabetes 1- self inject insulin Diabetes 2- does not self-inject insulin because they have too much Fasted state metabolismoGlucagon is high oBile acid is low oGluconeogenesis increases 47
Do a dos response- 50
Quiz 8 1. Gas exchange... (choose all correct) a.is a passive processb.is inversely related to surface areac.occurs across type II alveolar cells d.CO position does not affect gas exchange but affect the total blood O22. Which INCREASE gas exchange? (choose all correct)a.increased pressure gradient for carbon dioxideb.excess fluid in and around the alveolic.increased membrane thicknessd.high available surface area3) If a subject's alveolar oxygen is approximately 100 mm Hg, then a.the subject is hypoxicb.his arterial oxygen is approximately 100 mm Hgc.his plasma pCO2 will be lowd.the subject's venous oxygen is approximately 100 mm Hg