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DSST Environment-Humanities DANTES II

Decomposers detritivores break down dead plant and

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Decomposers (detritivores) break down dead plant and animal material and wastes and release it again as energy and nutrients into the ecosystem for recycling. Decomposers, such as bacteria and fungi (mushrooms), feed on waste and dead matter, converting it into inorganic chemicals that can be recycled as mineral nutrients for plants to use again. Trophic levels can be represented by numbers, starting at level 1 with plants. Further trophic levels are numbered subsequently according to how far the organism is along the food chain. Level 1: Plants and algae make their own food and are called primary producers. Level 2: Herbivores eat plants and are called primary consumers. Level 3: Carnivores which eat herbivores are called secondary consumers. Level 4: Carnivores which eat other carnivores are called tertiary consumers. Level 5: Apex predators which have no predators are at the top of the food chain Ozone layer and its role (CFC is the substance that affects it most) The ozone layer is located in the stratosphere. It is also highly affected by CFCs. The ozone layer is a layer in Earth's atmosphere which contains relatively high
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concentrations of ozone (O3). This layer absorbs 97–99% of the sun's high frequency ultraviolet light, which is potentially damaging to life on earth. Atmosphere, stratosphere, troposphere (how each is affected) (O3 in the troposphere = bad; O3 in the stratosphere = good) (Know what the innermost layer is.) Exosphere - The outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere extends from the exobase upward. The exosphere is mainly composed of hydrogen and helium. Thermosphere - Temperature increases with height in the thermosphere from the mesopause up to the thermopause, then is constant with height. The top of the thermosphere is the bottom of the exosphere, called the exobase. Mesosphere - The mesosphere extends from the stratopause to 80–85 km (50–53 mi; 260,000–280,000 ft). It is the layer where most meteors burn up upon entering the atmosphere. Stratosphere - The stratosphere extends from the tropopause to about 51 km (32 mi; 170,000 ft). Temperature increases with height, which restricts turbulence and mixing. Contains the ozone. Troposphere (inner most layer) - The troposphere begins at the surface and extends to between 7 km (23,000 ft) at the poles and 17 km (56,000 ft) at the equator, with some variation due to weather. The troposphere is mostly heated by transfer of energy from the surface, so on average the lowest part of the troposphere is warmest and temperature decreases with altitude. Climate & temperature (how changes occur) Factors that can shape climate are climate forcings. These include such processes as variations in solar radiation, deviations in the Earth's orbit, mountain-building and continental drift, and changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. Examples include plate tectonics, volcanic eruptions, ocean variability and human influences (global warming).
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