g.Encouraging Language Growthi.Influence of TV? ii. Speaking to children frequently iii. Naming objects that grab children’s attention iv. Using grammatically sophisticated speech v. Reading to children while carefully describing pictures and asking questions h. Grammatical Development 1. Behaviorist solution: imitation and reinforcement 2.Problems??? Chomsky’s famous example. 3. Linguistic solution: innate neural mechanisms guide the learning of grammar 4. Cognitive solution: detection of patterns and irregularities, and creation of rules 5. Social-interaction solution: eclectic integration of behavioral, linguistic, and cognitive ideas, with emphasis on desire to communicate ii. Over-regularization
iii. Knowledge of rules Chapter 5 – Socioemotional Development 1. Trust & Attachment a. Erikson’s theory: conflicts and achievements b. Basic trust vs. mistrust – With a proper balance of trust and mistrust, infants can acquire hope • c. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt – A blend of autonomy, shame, and doubt gives rise to will, the knowledge that within limits, youngsters can act on their world intentionally • d. Initiative vs. guilt – Purpose is achieved with a balance between individual initiative and a willingness to cooperate with others e. Attachment growth i. Evolutionary explanation for attachment ii. Cultural differences in attachment iii. Bowlby ’s stages of attachment 1. Preattachment 2. Attachment in the making 3. True attachment 4. Reciprocal relationships iv. Gender differences in parenting v. Forms of attachment (Strange Situation) 1. Secure 2. Avoidant 3. Resistant 4. Disorganized vi. Consequences of attachment (later relationships) f. What determines attachment? i. Parenting ii. Temperament of baby iii. Cultural factors 1. Responsiveness 2. Ethnotheories 3. Parenting Goals 2. Emerging Emotions a.Function – why are emotions important for development? b. Experiencing & expressing emotion i. Developing emotions 1. Newborns – distress, pleasure 2. 2-3 months: social smiles 3. Cultural differences 4. 4-8 months – more sophisticated negative emotions expressed facially a. Stranger wariness b. Separation anxiety (relationship to attachment)
5. Complex emotions a. Sense of self c. Recognizing emotion i. Basic distinctions (positive vs. negative) at 7 months ii. Finer distinctions at 12 months iii. Cultural differences iv. Using other’s emotions: Social referencing d. Regulating emotion i. Early regulation strategies (4-6 months) ii. Delay of gratification 3. Interacting with Others a. Play i. Parallel ii. Simple social play iii. Cooperative play iv. Pretend play b. Helping i. Altruism 1. Perspective-taking 2. Influence of parenting ***Note that the section on Gender was not covered. Therefore, questions #42-45 on your practice test can be disregarded.
- Fall '14
- Developmental Psychology, i., ii.