Wagle_Chapter_23_Respiratory_System_Anatomy

They are composed of bunch of tubesbronchi

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They are composed of: Bunch of tubes…..bronchi, bronchioles. Lots of blood vessels…..pulmonary artery branches, massive capillary network, pulmonary veins. Bunch of alveoli…..sacs where actual gas exchange takes place.
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Nose Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchus Lungs Blood supply to the lungs : R. Ventricle (O-) pulmonary trunk (O-) R. L. pulmonary arteries (O-) R. L. lungs pulmonary arterioles (O-) break up into capillaries around the alveoli exchange gases (O 2 in, CO 2 out) join to form pulmonary venules (O+) join to form 4 pulmonary veins (O+) L. atrium (O+). Endothelial wall of lung capillaries secretes angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II stimulates ADH and aldosterone secretion increases BP and blood volume…. ACE inhibitor to lower BP .
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Nose Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchus Lungs Alveoli : Tiny, air-filled, thin walled sacs where gas exchange takes place. Two types of epithelial cells and a type of WBC- Type I alveolar cells : simple squamous epithelial, form a continuous layer. Type II alveolar ( septal ) cells : Secrete surfactant (slimy mix of phospholipids and proteins) - lowers surface tension; prevents alveoli to collapsing. Alveolar macrophages ( dust cells ): phagocytic - to remove dust particles.
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Nose Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchus Lungs Respiratory membrane : Very thin partition between the air in the alveoli and blood in the surrounding capillaries. Allow rapid gas exchange between lungs and blood. Composed of: Alveolar wall – Type I alveolar cells….simple squamous epithelium Capillary wall – endothelium….simple squamous epithelium Basically two thin layers of flat cells! Easy for gases to diffuse! Alveolar sac
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Nose Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchus Lungs Clinical applications: Pneumothorax : when air fills pleural cavity difficulty expanding. Hemothorax : when blood fills pleural cavity. Pleurisy : inflammation of pleural membranes. Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) : Surfactant production begins in 7 month fetus if insufficient collapsed lungs ( atelectasis ). Cortisol shot to the mother during pre-mature delivery or surfactant spray to newborn lungs. Pulmonary embolism : thrombus in legs embolus to lungs reduced blood flow to lungs and difficulty breathing heparin/TPA to dissolve the clot.
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