DSST Anthropology as a Discipline

Known as the father of modern anthropology franz boas

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Known as the Father of Modern Anthropology, Franz Boas is noted for applying the scientific method to the study of human cultures and societies. Boas was a leading opponent of the evolutionists, who he believed made too many assumptions based on too little data. Boas stressed the need to conduct anthropological research based only on facts and to distrust any expectations. Genetic drift is another mechanism by which evolutionary changes may occur. It can be defined as the apparently random variation of certain gene frequencies under special conditions of small population size
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or of isolation or both. Also called the Sewall Wright effect and non-Darwinian evolution, it has been the subject of considerable controversy. Genetic drift is used to refer to various random processes that affect gene frequencies in small, relatively isolated populations. It is also known as the Sewall Wright effect. One variety of genetic drift occurs when a small population recently derived from a larger one expands in relative isolation. Called the founder effect, this process might occur, for example, if a family with ten children--all of whom exhibit a particular rare, but neutral, trait--moved to a tiny country hamlet. If all members of the family remained in the hamlet, married, and produced children who also stayed there and produced more children, and if the hamlet remained isolated from the outside world, the trait might become relatively common among residents of the area in a few generations. The near absence of Blood Type B in the American Indian has been attributed to genetic drift . However, B-type blood reaches its highest frequency in some Mongoloid groups thought to be ancestral to the early inhabitants of the New World. An allele is an alternate form of a gene at a given locus (location on a chromosome). Alternate forms of a gene are known as alleles. For example, given the gene for eye color, blue eyes, hazel eyes, and brown eyes are some of the alleles for that gene. A chromosome is an X-shaped collection of genes, and a locus is a specific position on that chromosome. Certain genes are always found on a certain chromosome (Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes) at a certain locus. Another example of alleles--the gene for ABO blood group has three alleles, A, B, and O. Allele Frequency is the commonness of a particular allele in a given population, stated as a number, from 0 to 1, or as a percentage, from 0 to 100. Genotypic Variations are caused by differences in number or structure of chromosomes or by differences in the genes carried by the chromosomes. Eye color, body form, and disease resistance are genotypic variations. As you recall, a person's genotype is the set of genes they carry. Typically differences in genotype are simply because one person has a unique set of alleles for his various traits given to him by his parents. Other possible differences, which are out of the ordinary, are having a different number or structure of chromosomes (instead of the ordinary 23 pairs of chromosomes). Genetic variation causes people to have different
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Known as the Father of Modern Anthropology Franz Boas is...

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