It contains three columns where the first two columns contains the all nodes in

It contains three columns where the first two columns

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algorithm processing. It contains three columns, where the first two columns contains the all nodes in the network that are neighbors of each other and third column contains the euclidean distance in meters between them. The E matrix can be created during the network layout printing, see Fig. 2. As was mentioned before, the link lengths between all node pairs are compared with the uniform radio range R and if the condition d i,j < R is accomplished the link is displayed. The E matrix is created within this condition since all required parameters such as IDs of two neighbors and their distance d is known and condition of lengths is accomplished. The context of the E matrix is visualised also in Fig 2. If the link quality or residual energy are to be used instead of the distance between nodes for the route establishment, the information in the third column of E matrix can be substituted by the required information. Then the path between two nodes is selected as the path with the highest quality or path with the maximum energy. Fig. 3 shows results of the described functions. Source file oneRound.m for the WSN routing can be found in [10]. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 x [m] y [m] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 Fig. 3. Network layout with the highlighted shortest path estimated by the grShortPath function. IV. C OMMUNICATION C OST OF D ATA G ATHERING Once the paths from all nodes to the given node representing the base station is known, the number of messages per each node processed during the data gathering can be estimated. Consider line of nodes n 1 up to n 4 in Fig. 4, where the n 1 node initiates the unicast transmission. Given message is propagated to its neighbors due to the omnidirectional nature of the transmission. The desired neighbor n 2 receives message, checks the routing information, checks cyclic redundancy (CRC) and forwards this message through the downstream path. As nodes use an omnidirectional antenna, a copy of this message with changed destination address is again received by the initiator node n 1 . But at this moment, after the whole message is received, it is discarded since its destination address does not complies with an ID of a demanded node. Node n 1 thus overhears the message that was not addressed for it. The overhearing effect in dense sensor networks was detaily studied by Basu and Redi [1]. For the simulation, it is considered to employ a Store-and-Forward mechanism. The nodes receive whole incoming message and after checking the header in the buffer take decision about a further processing. Hence, the energy cost E Ox of the overhearing process can equal to the E Rx . The n 1 spends energy E 1 = E Tx + E Rx .
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  • Fall '18
  • Mr. Bhullar
  • Wireless sensor network

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