Increase the time spent together 4 increase the

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Increase the time spent together 4. Increase the status and perceived difficulty of group membership 5. Increase competition with other groups 6. Give rewards to the group rather than to individual members 7. Physically isolate the group
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Property 6: Interdependence Three kinds of interdependence: Pooled – Groups share resources such as fax and copier machines, but work is independent. Serial – One person’s outputs are another’s inputs. A marketing surveyor passes the data along to someone who does analysis. Reciprocal – Work is passed back and forth until it is complete. Researchers working together on an academic paper; 5 persons on a basketball team, etc. **The greater the interdependence of a group, the more it becomes a team.** 8-24
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8-25 Group Decision Making Strengths Generate more complete information and knowledge Increased diversity of views Increased acceptance of a solution Weaknesses Takes longer Conformity pressures Discussions can be dominated by one or a few members Ambiguous responsibility for the final outcome
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8-26 Groupthink Symptoms A deterioration of individual’s mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgments as a result of group pressures Occurs when members: Rationalize away resistance to assumptions Pressure doubters to support the majority Doubters keep silent/minimize their misgivings Interprets silence as a “yes” vote
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8-27 Minimizing Groupthink Limit group size (≤10) Encourage group leaders to actively seek input from all members and avoid expressing their own opinions Appoint a “devil’s advocate” – someone who points out all the things wrong with every group decision.
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8-28 Groupshift Group discussions lead members to assume new, more extreme, positions Groups often take positions of greater risk May be due to diffused responsibility
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8-29 Group Decision-Making Techniques Interacting groups meet face-to-face and rely on verbal and non-verbal interactions to communicate Brainstorming Generates a list of creative alternatives, even ”crazy” ones, without judgement. Nominal Group Technique (NGT) Restricts discussion during the decision- making process to encourage independent thinking
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