metabolism deficient in Asian Middle Eastern at risk for hemolysis use wcaution

Metabolism deficient in asian middle eastern at risk

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-metabolism: deficient in Asian, Middle Eastern -at risk for hemolysis -use w/caution Penicillin G Sodium -disrupt cell walls of bacteria w/B-lactam ring, gm+staph/strep -minor adverse effects, one of the safest -allergy most common (rash, pruritus, fever lowered RBC, WBC, platelet counts) Cefazolin (Ancef) Cephalosporin -disrupts cells walls -gram infections -many B-lactam ring -generations 1-5 -allergy appears days later -rash, GI, kidney toxicity (earlier generations) -cross-sensitivity to penicillin Tetracycline (Sumycin) -effective g-/+ -very broad spectrum -bacteriostatic -high resistance -GI distress -photophobia -hepatotoxicity if liver disease -take w/food -never use outdated pills- nephrotoxicity -dont take w/Ca or Fe:reduced efficacy -don’t give <8yo -don’t give pregnant: risk of fetal bone growth/teeth formation -risk of superinfection high Azithromycin (Zithromax) & Erythromycin (E- mycin) -safe alt to penicillin -bacteriostatic at low doses, bactericidal at high doses -g-/+, atypical -superinfections -resistance is developing -mild GI upset, abd, pain, diarrhea -pseudomembranous colitis -report blood in stool -take w/food -culture & sensitivity tests performed prior to therapy -s/s of anaphylaxis
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-some have long half lives Gentamicin (Garamycin) -more toxic than others - g-, protozoans -bactericidal -give IV d/t poor GI absorption -toxicity- tinnitus and kidney -drink w/lots of fluids -monitor I & O -monitor CBC for differential Ciprofloxacin (cipro) -g+/-: respiratory, GI, GU tracts, skin & tissue -preferred for UTI -broad spectrum -tendonitis, tendon rupture risk>60 yo & steroids -don’t take with MVI -monitor anaphylaxis -can be given on empty stomach Trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazol e9 -wide spectrum g+/- -bacteriostatic -many resistants developed -urine crystals, hypersensitivity, n/v, aplastic anemias -many people allergic to sulfur -report rash, sore throat fever, mouth sores, bruising -increase fluids -assess for sulfur allergy -monitor I & O Vancomycin -used after bacteria have become resistant to other safer antibiotics -most effective for MRSA -for severe infections from g+ organisms -may cause ototoxicity,, hearing must be evaluated frequently -nephrotoxicity leading to uremia -can cause red-man syndrome -monitor peak and trough levels after 3 doses Metronidazole (Flagyl) -treats most forms of amebiasis -for nonmalarial protozoans -acts as antiprotozoan drug that also has antibiotic activity against anaerobic bacteria -anorexia, n/d, dizziness, headache, dry mouth, unpleasant metallic taste -don’t try ETOH Isoniazid (IND) -first line therapy of active TB Inhibits mycobacterial wall synthesis and interferes w/metabolism -drug-induced hepatitis, -optic neuritis -peripheral neuropathy -report numbness of
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