Gender Stereotype: a rigidly held categorical belied that certain personality traits are inherently associated with being male or female.3.Prevalance: a.American strongly differentiate between male and female:i.Personality Traitii.Interestsiii.Abilities4.Difference between sex and gender:a.Sex: The set of biological characteristics associated with being male or female.i.Ex: height, strength (Genotype)b.Gender: The social and psychological traits that are expected of people based on their biological sex.i.(Phenotype): how we are culturized or socialized5.Gender Roles: The culturally imposed expectations for behavior of those who are identifies as female or male.6.Theories about learning gender: Identification, Social Learning and Cognitive Development7.Identification Theoryi.Freud’s work on psychosexual stages1.I.D: Pleasure Principlebasic drives (born with)2.Ego: Reality Principlebalance id and superego3.Superego: Consciencesense of moralityii.Gender differences in personality and behavior;1.development of superego2.children’s awareness of differences of external growth3.castration anxiety vs. penis envyiii.Highly criticized8.Social Learning Theory:i.Children learn appropriate sexual behaviors through1.Reinforcement2.Punishment3.Modeling or imitating the actions of other peopleii.Not all believe children are blank slates waiting for parents to mold them.9. Cognitive Development Theoryiii.Learning gender by categorizing people and objectsiv.Gender is a very visible category (age 3, by 4 seldom mistake)v.Downplays role of culture in gender role acquisitionvi.Emphasizes sex as a natural category10. Parents influence on kids about appropriate gender behavior:b.Parents respond to gender specifics ways to their childrenc.Starts at very young aged.Communicate differently with girls vs boys11. Parents communication with girls vs boys:
a. Girls: Parents emphasize sensitivity to others feelings more with girls. (Example: emphasize sadness)b. Boys: interactions demonstrate dominance and competitiveness (example: focus on expressing anger)12. Gender reinforcement in schools:Have girls working more in groups, more relationship orientated.13. Gender Reinforcement in t.v and magazines:14. Gabriel and Gardner (1999) Article I: a. “Are there his and her relationships?” Are men more independent and women more interdependent? In other words: extent to which sex is defines as separate from, versus connected, to, others.b. Independent: How am I different and unique?Individuals are inherently separateInterdependent: Every individual is part of larger social wholeGoal is to form and maintain social relationshipsE.g., “mother”c. Types of interdependence:Relationship aspect: Close relationships with specific othersCollective aspect: group memberships and affiliationsd. Each study:Study 1: Identity:Men and women completed 20 sentence fragments –“I am”Coded for:Independence: I am intelligentRelational: I am the youngest daughter in familyCollective: I am in a fraternity
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 13 pages?
- Spring '08
- partner, passionate love, sexual minority relationships