Cancer of the adrenal glands causes excess

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cancer of the adrenal glands causes excess catecholamines, so high blood pressure from vasoconstriction, elevated blood sugar, and weight loss 18. characteristics of erythrocytes O2 carriers, no cell division, no nucleus/mitochondria, energy derived from glycolysis 19. Chemicals during childbirth Fervid thins out and amniotic sac ruptures. Grostaglandins and oxytocin are released MCAT Biology question bank Study online at quizlet.com/_3hzkir
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20. common cholesterol hormones testosterone, estradiol, cortisol, aldosterone, growth hormone, vitamin D, estrogen 21. common peptide hormones prolactin, ACTH, ADH, oxytocin, glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, gastrin, leptin 22. components of bile cholesterol, phospholipids, bilirubin 23. countercurrent exchange mechanism occurs in the loop of henle, which allows for increased water reabsorption. the changes in osmolarity and solute identity maintain Na and Cl concentrations at homeostatic levels, active transport is involved 24. cushing disease caused by an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma. it elevates cortisol levels, growth of the adrenal cortex, hypertension, and weight gain 25. a cylinder is filled with ice water mixture and a substance is added, after heat transfer, the level of the water rises. what substance is it? heat is transferred to the bath, which will melt the ice, and you do this by adding a substance at a lower temperature than freezing 26. Dendrites Appendages that receive signals from other cells 27. Describe an action potential 1. Stimulus 2. Cell is depolarized to threshold voltage and Na channels open 3.Na flows into the neuron 4. At peak of action potential, sodium closes and K opens 5.K flows out and cell is repolarized 6. The potential is over shot below -70 mV 7. Hyperpolarization and K channels close (refractory period) 8. Na/K pump returns gradients 28. describe neurulation development of the nervous system, starts after formation of the 3 germ layers: 1. the notochord induces a group of overlying ectodermal cells to form neural folds and neural groove 2. neural folds fuse to for the neural tube 3. the tip of each fold contains neural crest cells, which become peripheral nervous system 29. describe the 3 steps of PCR denaturing: requires heating and an enzyme that will not be denatured by heat (use Taq) annealing: put in primer at a lower temp, and they go at the ends of the specific region you want to copy extending: heat it back up a little, and the DNA can make many copies 30. describe the anatomy of an antibody shaped like a Y: antigens bind on the very tips of the Y, touching the variable regions of both the light (outer) and heavy chain (inner) disulfide bridges hold together the heavy chain of the constant and variable regions 31. describe the difference between divergent and convergent evolution divergent: results in speciation, when one species diverges into multiple descendent species convergent: when species have different ancestral origins but have developed similar features 32.
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