Whiskey rebellion and the excise tax seemed to

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Whiskey Rebellion, and the excise tax seemed to endanger states’ rights which infuriated Antifederalists. As resentment grew, the personal rivalry between Hamilton and Jefferson gradually evolved into two political parties. The Founding Fathers had not envisioned political parties when they were creating the Constitution. By 1793, two parties evolved known as the Democratic-Republicans of Jefferson and Hamilton’s Federalists. This 2-party system strengthened the United States government, helping balance power and ensuring no huge deviation from the norm. D. The World’s Ugly Duckling The continued presence of European powers in North America challenged the United States to find ways to safeguard its borders, maintain neutral trading rights, and promote its economic interests. Britain attempted to annex Vermont with the help of the Allen brothers and continued to hold a chain of trading posts on United States land. In 1784, Spain closed and restricted trade on the Mississippi River, hurting American commerce. Spain also claimed a large area near the Gulf of Mexico that was ceded to the United States by Britain. Both Spain and England encouraged Indian aggression which prevented the U.S. from controlling half of its territory. At this time, even France demanded payment of the United States debts. North African pirates began to ravage U.S ships in the Mediterranean Sea and enslaved American sailors. This happened because the United States was too weak to stop them. E. The Impact of the French Revolution The French Revolution greatly affected the United States but as the conflict escalated it also threatened to bring America into the war. Americans initially supported the French Revolution because it reminded them of the American Revolution. Only a few ultra-conservative Federalists were upset at this “mobocracy” and revolt. When France declared war on Austria and proclaimed itself a republic, Americans celebrated by renaming various streets and places after the French. When the revolution turned radical and bloody, Federalists changed opinions, but Jefferson’s supporters felt that no revolution could be bloodless. America was drawn into the revolution when France declared war on Great Britain and the band for North American land began again. F. Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation The response to the French Revolution’s spread throughout Europe, the new United States debated and formulated foreign policy initiatives and asserted an international presence. Democratic-Republicans wanted to enter the war on the side of France, our recent ally against Britain. Washington knew war could mean disaster because the United States was militarily and economically weak and politically disunited. In 1793, Washington issued the Neutrality Proclamation which labeled the U.S. as officially neutral and warned Americans to stay out of the conflict. The Democratic-Republicans were furious because both parties were bother by neutrality and they believed it made the U.S. look weak. Soon afterwards, Citizen Edmond Genêt
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  • Spring '19
  • Joe Smith
  • American Revolution, Thirteen Colonies

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