Cyclical change in the temperature and moisture

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- cyclical change in the temperature and moisture characteristics  of a given region associated with the orientation of the Earth during its  annual passage around the Sun. El Ninos - global scale changes in winds, temperatures, and rainfall  induced by the interaction of the atmosphere with the ocean across the  tropical Pacific.  Global warming - commonly used to refer to recent warming of the global- average temperature over the last 100 years, which coincides with  significant increases in atmospheric concentrations of heat-trapping gases  arising from humans’ activities here on the Earth. Looking back father, the  global-average temperature have both warmed and cooled on time-scales  of decades to centuries.  Ice ages - very slow (over tens of thousands of years) changes in the  global average temperature accompanied by the spread and retreat of  massive glaciers of ice across the high- and mid-latitude regions of the  globe.  Insolation - incoming solar radiation  Cold-air outbreaks - can last from a few days to a week, dramatically  drops the average temperature.  Air masses - cold, dry air in winter and warm, moist air in summer.  Droughts - prolonged periods with little to no rainfall. Graph/plot - display scientific data in a way that shows relationships.  Maps - used to show how phenomena are organized in space.  Variable - one set of data.
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Temperature inversion - in which temperature increases with height  above the surface.  Line graph - presents the data as a continuous line.  Discrete - only available at select points in space or time.  Cartographers - mapmakers Geographic grid - made up of a system of imaginary circles, called  parallels and meridians.  Parallels - east-west lines running parallel to the Equator and used to  designate the latitude of a location.  Meridians - north-south lines that join the North and South Poles and are  used to designate the longitude of a location.  o Prime meridian passes through Greenwich, England Map projections - a system of parallels and meridians representing the  curvature of the Earth drawn on a flat surface.  Mercator projection - map projection of horizontal parallels and vertical  meridians, with the space between parallels increasing poleward.  Polar   projection - map projection centered on the Earth’s North or South  Pole Isolines - lines on a map that connect locations with equal values of a  given variable Temperature - a measure of the molecular energy within a given  substance.  Summary
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