door-in-the-face technique – large, unreasonable request is made first with the expectation that the person will refuse but will then be more likely to respond favorably to a smaller request later (the result desired from the beginning) c. low-ball technique – very attractive initial offer is made to get people to commit themselves to an action, and then the terms are made less favorable D. Obedience 1. Milgram tested obedience to authority V. Group Behavior A. Social Facilitation – the process by which a person’s performance is increased when other members of a group engage in similar behavior 1. evaluation apprehension – concern that others are evaluating our behavior B. Social Loafing – tendency to put forth less effort when working with others on a common task than they do when they are working alone
1. may be attributable to diffusion of responsibility (the spreading or sharing of responsibility for a decision or behavior within a group) C. Group Polarization (“risky shift”) – when group discussion causes members of a group to shift to a more extreme position in whatever direction the group was leaning initially D. Groupthink – a process in which group members are influenced by cohesiveness and a dynamic leader to ignore external realities as they make decisions (individual members may hesitate to voice any dissent) Study Guide for Chapter 2 – The Biology of Mind You should be able to define / describe / provide an example of / identify an example of: I. Cells of the nervous system: The neuron A. Parts of a neuron 1. Cell body (also called Soma ) – contains the nucleus 2. Dendrites – branch out from cell body & receive signals from other neurons 3. Axon – slender tail-like extension of the neuron that transmits signals to other neurons B. Types of neurons 1. Sensory (afferent) neuron – transmits messages from the senses to the CNS 2. Motor (efferent) neuron – transmits messages from the CNS to the muscles 3. Interneuron – transmits information between neurons in the CNS C. Other cells in nervous system 1. Glial cells (specialized cells in the brain and spinal cord that hold the neurons together and remove waste products such as dead neurons) 2. Myelin sheath (fatty substance that encases and insulates axons; speeds up transmission of neural impulses) II. Communication between neurons: Neural firing A. Resting neuron 1. Resting potential (-70 mV) B. If a portion is stimulated beyond its threshold, it briefly reverses polarity 1. Action potential (rapid depolarization to approximately +35 mV) electrical impulse that provides the basis for the conduction of a neural impulse along the axon of a neuron 2. Permeability changes (ion channels open/close) 3. All-or-none law 4. Refractory period (4-5 ms) – a phase following firing during which a neuron is less sensitive to messages from other neurons and will not fire 5. Resting potential is restored III. Communication between neurons occurs at the synapse A. Synapse (communication between two neurons) 1. Pre-synaptic vs. post-synaptic neuron B. Firing neurons release neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) that cross the synapse
1. Neural impulse
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- Fall '13
- c. symptoms, B. cause, a. Chromosomes