flooding, systematic desensitization. CHALLENGES TO CONDITIONING MODELS OF LEARNINGInstinctive Drift: learned behaviour that shifts toward instinctive, unlearned behaviour tendencies. An instinctive behaviour will usually override the learned behaviour. The Brelands tried to condition raccoons to insert poker chips into a vending machine, the raccoons rubbed them instead of putting them in the slot machine because they have natural tendencies to hoard things, which got worse as time progressed. Biological Constraint Model: some behaviors are inherently more easily learned than others. 11
Imprinting: rapid and innate learning of the characteristics of a caregiver very soon after birth. Lorenz’s baby geese. Provides clear evidence of a sensitive period in learning: a period when a particular type of learning occurs very readily if an animal is exposed to a particular stimulus or situation. BEYOND SKINNERCognition and Operant Conditioning.Cognitive Map: mental representation of layout of the environment. E.g. after exploring maze, rats act as if they learned a cognitive map. Latent Learning: learning that occurs, but is not apparently until there is incentive to demonstrate it. Ex. Tolman had 3 groups of hungry rats that were randomly assigned to 3 groups, one group was rewarded with food if they reached the end of the maze, and became better and better at maze running due to the reinforcement. Group 2 received no food for their work, and never ran the maze well due to the lack of reinforcement. Group 3 began to be reinforced with food after a few non-reinforced trials, and started outperforming rats in group 1. Exclusive-Or: one or the other, but not both. E.g. tone or light but not tone and light together, or socializing with friends that do not get along with one another. Devaluation: ability of a CS to elicit a CR or a discriminative stimulus to elicit behavior may be diminished in the absence of a direct pairing between the CS or discriminative stimulus and a consequence. What is learned in operant conditioning?Relationship between a response and outcome. What happened in a “devaluation” situation where the outcome value is changed after operant training?Step 1: lever press produces food reinforcer. Step 2: food is poisoned (taste of food is associated with illness – classical conditioning.)Step 3: Will the animal press the lever associated with food? (i.e. retain the response learnt in step 1).The above demonstrates the more general problem of retrospective revaluation. Organisms will learn to modify a response in the absence of a direct association between the response and a consequence. OBSERVATIONAL LEARNINGSOCIAL LEARNING THEORYEnactive Learning: learning by doing. Observational Learning: learning by observing and imitating others. Modeling (process of observing and imitating behaviour, observed in non-human animals and young infants). Reinforcement for our own behaviour andothers who observe it.