Key dates in the history of modern india 1600 home to

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Key Dates in the History of Modern India 1600 – home to large number of empires, states, and religious traditions, incl. Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism 1600s – British East India Company arrives in India 1857 – Rebellion against the rule of the British East India Company 1858 – Britain asserts direct crown control over most India, and rules most of India through “Princely States” of local nobles 1915-1930s – Mohandas Gandhi becomes the leader of the Indian National Congress and leads protests against British rule Other influential leaders are Jawaharlal Nehru and Muhammad Ali Jinnah of the Muslim League
Key Dates in the History of Modern India 1947 – Independence and partition of India into India and Pakistan 1948 – Mohandas Gandhi assassinated by Hindu fundamentalist 1950 – Constitution adopted 1964 – death of Nehru 1966 – Indira Gandhi (daughter of Nehru) becomes PM 1971 – India and Pakistan fight over East Pakistan, which separated from West Pakistan and became Bangladesh 1974 – India explodes a nuclear device 1975-1977 – Martial law under Indira Gandhi 1977 - INC loses power for the first time
Key Dates in the History of Modern India 1979 – Indira Gandhi returns as PM 1984 – Indira Gandhi assassinated by her Sikh bodyguard, riots and the massacre of the members of the Sikh minority follow, Rajiv Gandhi becomes PM 1989 – Protests in Kashmir, a Muslim majority area administered by India on the border between India and Pakistan 1991 – Rajiv Gandhi assassinated by militants seeking a separate homeland for Sri Lankan Tamils and angry at India’s intervention in the conflict 1991 – Pro-market reforms begin 1990s – tensions between Muslims and Hindus, as the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party comes to power 2000s – India’s economy booms, INC back in power 2014 – Narendra Modi of the BJP becomes PM
India’s Political Institutions Federal representative democracy, parliamentary democracy Federal system with 29 states and 7 union territories Executive Branch – PM is the head of government and Presidents holds ceremonial powers PM – selected by Parliament President – elected by electoral college of Parliament and state legislators for 5-year term, and can be reelected Legislative Branch – bicameral parliament Lower chamber: Lok Sabha (House of the People), 550 members, FPTP Upper chamber – Rajya Sabha (Council of States) – no more than 250 members Judicial Branch – Supreme Court of India (a chief justice + 17 judges, appointed by the president on the advice of PM) Political Party System – Multiparty system, two major parties and coalitions at national level: Indian Congress Party (United Progressive Alliance) and Bharatiya Janata Party (National Democratic Alliance)
India’s Political Culture and Institutions The world’s largest democracy Extremely diverse population Largely free, fair, and regular local, state and national elections High level of voter turnout Independent judiciary Freedom of the press High degree of inequality and stratification The caste system Corruption The challenge of ethnic diversity

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