more about her son's condition. Which of the following teaching points is most justifiable? Viruses have been implicated as a contributing factor in childhood asthma. Wheezing may or may not be present in children, and inhaled corticosteroids are not common as an initial therapy. Current treatment guidelines do not advise the categorical avoidance of exercise. “Research has shown that viruses may actually be a factor in many children's asthma.” “The most reliable indicator that your child is having an asthma attack is audible wheezing.” “Steroids that your child can inhale will likely be the first line of defense. “Your son will likely need to limit or avoid exercise and sports.” Question 14.14. Which of the following phenomena is most likely occurring during a child's alveolar stage of lung development? During the alveolar stage of lung development from late fetal to early childhood, a single capillary network appears, and the lungs are ready to perform respiration. The development of alveolar sacs and production of surfactant are associated with the saccular period, and formation of the conducting airways occurs during the pseudoglandular period. Formation of primitive alveoli takes place during the canalicular period. Terminal alveolar sacs are developing and surfactant production is beginning. 12
A single-capillary network exists and the lungs are capable of respiration. The conducting airways are formed, but respiration is not yet possible. Primitive alveoli are formed and the bronchi and bronchioles become much larger. Question 15.15. A 71-year-old woman is dependent on oxygen therapy and bronchodilators due to her diagnosis of emphysema. Which of the following processes would her care team be most justified in ruling out ? In lung pathology, such as emphysema, large amounts of air are trapped at the end of a given breath, a situation that corresponds to increased residual volume and decreased vital capacity. Elastic recoil would tend to suffer, and both alveolar and anatomical dead space consequently increase. Decreased elastic recoil due to alveolar damage Decreased residual lung volume due to impaired alveolar ventilation Increased anatomic dead space due to reduced tidal volume Increased alveolar dead space due to incorrect intrapleural pressure Question 16.16. A definitive test for cystic fibrosis is? If a genetic test or blood test suggests CF, a doctor will confirm the diagnosis using a sweat test. This test is the most useful test for diagnosing CF. A sweat test measures the amount of salt in sweat. The sweat test ------- A sputum culture --------- A fecal fat test A Chymex test for pancreatic insufficiency Question 17.17. A patient who presented with shortness of breath and difficulty climbing stairs has been diagnosed with pulmonary fibrosis, a disease characterized by scarring of the alveoli. What would her care team anticipate when observing her breathing? Scarring diminishes the elasticity of the lung tissue, resulting in noncompliant lungs that are more difficult to inflate. In
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