when they have participated in decision making about them (Pullali, 2012). Member’s position in the network can affect personal satisfaction. Members in more central positions in the network tend to be more satisfied (Bonito, 2012).
16 2.4 Causes of ineffective communication According to Subba (2007), some of the causes of break down in effective communication in organizations are: Downward Communication:(from superiors to subordinates) may break down because of poor organization, confusion about the messages being transmitted, or for personal reasons. If the channels of communication are inefficient or insufficient, the organization is at fault (there is technical noise). Poor personal relations between superior and subordinate will cause a break-down in communications because of mutual suspicion, or because their differing backgrounds or differing senses of values make it impossible for them to talk to each other properly or understand what the other is trying to do or say. Upward Communication:(from subordinates to superior) may break down for the same reasons as applicable in downward communication. An additional consideration is that the subordinate, because he wants to hide his errors or the errors of a fellow worker, or because he does not want to bother his boss with a problem he thinks he can handle himself, may give incorrect information for his superior to act on. Horizontal communication:(between people on the same hierarchical level, or perhaps in different departments) may break down because departments are geographically separated with inadequate communication links, there is no formal organization for the cross fertilization of ideas and opinions between departments, the organization is too centralized and insists on all such negotiations being made at top management level, and/or because there is a poor informal communication structure. Other causes to ineffective communication according to Adeleke include; Poor pictorial representation Many a time jobs are described by sketchy, incomplete, inaccurate and not well correlated drawing and charts, thus they are much more difficult to be priced and be constructed. Poor written media Poorly written reports, letters, specification, schedules and bill of quantities most times makes it difficult for such projects to be completed on time and without disputes.
17 Inadequate communication equipment The problem ranges from bad telecommunication networks to ineffective postal service. The ineffective power supply is also not helping issues. The telecommunication networks are bad and messages received via telephone are most times mis-conceived and e-mails cannot be sent when there is power outage. Semantic problem The same word may mean different things to different people and this is because the meanings are people not words. For example if a foreman tells one of his gagmen to get something done “as soon as possible” the gang man may not get it done until after 2hours and he will give the excuse of doing it “as soon as it is possible for him to get done”.Education and training