a) Tissue fluid is a fluid / liquid found surrounding cells/ between cells formed as a result of ultra filtration from blood while lymph is inter cellular fluid which nutrients and oxygen have been taken and is rich in waste materials (mark as a whole) b) Vitamin K is needed for formation of prothrombin which is activated to thrombin which helps in clotting of blood. 18. Open circulatory system 19. Coronary Artery; 20. a) Oxyhaemoglobin; b) Use oxygen released from photosynthesis process; 21. Leukemia (acc. blood cancer) 22. (a) Diabetes mellitus (b) - Symptoms of diabetes mellitus - Passing urine frequently; - Constantly feeling thirsty; - Dehydration; - Loss of weight; - Poor resistant to infection; 23. (a) A – Tracheid; B – Vessel; (b) - Side walls are impregnated wit lignin/deposited with lignin /walls are lignified/pressure of lignin nucleus not enclosed by a membrane ; 24. There is high concentration of water vapour around the leaf/less space for water vapour form the leaf to occupy low saturation deficit /low diffusion gradient / the diffusion between the concentration of water vapour in the atmosphere and the air spaces is greatly reduced. 25. a) Transports water and dissolved mineral salts; provides mechanical support due to lignification of cells b) Narrow lumen of vessels and tracheids – enhances capillarity forces; Presence of pits on lignified walls follows for lateral movement of water; They are hollow to allow uninterrupted/ continuous flow of water from roots to leaves; 26. a) Involuntary movement of food along the alimentary canal b) Rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the circular and longitudinal muscles along the gut; 27. a) A – Hepatic portal vein; B- Hepatic artery; b) Excess glucose must be converted to glycogen; for storage c) Burning charcoal produces carbon (II) Oxide which combines with haemoglobin to 28. a) Oxyhaemoglobin form carboxyhaemoglobin that is stable/ does not dissociate; reducing efficiency of haemoglobin in carrying oxygen leading to death; Ref death alone leaf fall; exudation; gutation; transpiration
29. - Sebum – from sabaeceous glands – antiseptic ; - Confined layer of dead cells- impenotratable by bacteria/ fungi/ viruses - Sweat – saline and kills bacteria and viruses 30. Leukamia/ blood cancer; 31. a) inversion; b) mustard gas/ gamma rays/ x-rays/ beta rays/colchicines; 32. (a)( i) Dicotyledonae; (ii) Star shaped xylem/phloem between the arms o the xylem; (b) Lignified walls to prevent it from collapsing/keep it hollow open throughout: - Hollow/Lack cross walls for continuous flow of water and mineral salts any 1 - Narrow Lumen to enhance capillarity; 33. - Creates transpiration pull: - Absorbs latent heat of vaporization hence cools leaves of the plant: (2marks) 34. Water absorption does not involve active transport that requires energy from respiration facilitated enzymes ; hence no metabolic inhibition involved; 35. (a) A – Tracheids ; B – Xylem vessel; (b) B is hollow at the middle therefore the substance flowing through it gets to their destination faster as compared to that of A; (c) – Lignification ; 36. - Antigen B; - Rhesus antigen / Rhesus factor /rhesus protein; 37.
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- Fall '12
- Photosynthesis, red blood cells