Climate incoming solar radiation circulation of air

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CLIMATE:   incomingsolar radiation/ circulation of air/ circulation of ocean water/ long-term  oscillations(e.g.  ENSO)/   presence   of  greenhouse   gases(forcing agents). here are some more: position of the earth in itsorbit  ??causes seasonal changes in climate/ milankovichcycles(orbital variations cause the distance between earth andsun   to   vary   over   time,   thereby   influencing   amount   of   solarradiation received)/ sunspots: the amount of radiation the earthreceives from the sun is generally consistent, but occasionallythere   are   sunspots(flares  ??of   solar   activity)/albedo(thereflectivity of a surface)?????: is the degree of reflectivity of asurface,   like   snow,   tops   of   clouds   they   tend   to   reflect   solarradiation;   dark   surface   absorbs   it.   lots   of   snow:   highalbedo./volcanic   activity:   produce   large   amounts   of   smoke,particulate   that   temporarily   block   incoming   radiation,   alsoproduces greenhouse gases.-global average sea level is rising; northern hemisphere snowcover   is   thinner;   global   average   temperature   is   higher.   onlygreenhouse gas concentrations changed.-human activity has released carbon from sequestration inlong-term reservoirs-other greenhouse gases contribute to warming-there are many feedback cycles in the climate system-radioactive forcing expresses change in energy input overtime-the   atmosphere   is   not   the   only   factor   that   influencesclimate-in equatorial regions, the oceans receive more heat from thesun and atmosphere than they emit. near the poles, ocean wateremits more than it receives.-one ocean-atmosphere interaction that influences climate isthe EL Nino-Southern Oscillation ??(ENSO), a systematic shiftin atmospheric pressure, sea surface temperature, and oceancirculation in the tropical Pacific Ocean. 
-El Nino conditions are triggered when air pressure increasesin the  western Pacific and decreases in  the eastern Pacific,causing the equatorial winds to weaken. Know from ice cores tohave occurred for thousands of years. Affects air circulation andprecipitation patterns around the world when it occurs.-La Nina events are the opposite; under these conditions,cold   surface   waters   extend   far   westward   in   the   equatorialPacific. La Nina is a strong reversal of an EL Niño event, withequatorial   temperatures   in   Pacific   Ocean   being   cooler   thanaverage. -Both El Nino and La Nina have dramatic influences on globalweather   patterns.   ENSO   cycles   are   periodic   but   irregular,occurring   every   two   to   eight   years.   Scientists   are   alsoinvestigating whether globally warming air and sea temperaturesmay be increasing the frequency and strength of these cycles.-ENSO years: weak trade winds, difference of water level.ENSO has considerable effects on global climate. 1997 to 1998,ENSO causes heavy rains in east Africa, droughts and forest intropical Indonesia.--Milankovitch cycles: -solar output:

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