CLIMATE: incomingsolar radiation/ circulation of air/ circulation of ocean water/ long-term oscillations(e.g. ENSO)/ presence of greenhouse gases(forcing agents). here are some more: position of the earth in itsorbit ??causes seasonal changes in climate/ milankovichcycles(orbital variations cause the distance between earth andsun to vary over time, thereby influencing amount of solarradiation received)/ sunspots: the amount of radiation the earthreceives from the sun is generally consistent, but occasionallythere are sunspots(flares ??of solar activity)/albedo(thereflectivity of a surface)?????: is the degree of reflectivity of asurface, like snow, tops of clouds they tend to reflect solarradiation; dark surface absorbs it. lots of snow: highalbedo./volcanic activity: produce large amounts of smoke,particulate that temporarily block incoming radiation, alsoproduces greenhouse gases.-global average sea level is rising; northern hemisphere snowcover is thinner; global average temperature is higher. onlygreenhouse gas concentrations changed.-human activity has released carbon from sequestration inlong-term reservoirs-other greenhouse gases contribute to warming-there are many feedback cycles in the climate system-radioactive forcing expresses change in energy input overtime-the atmosphere is not the only factor that influencesclimate-in equatorial regions, the oceans receive more heat from thesun and atmosphere than they emit. near the poles, ocean wateremits more than it receives.-one ocean-atmosphere interaction that influences climate isthe EL Nino-Southern Oscillation ??(ENSO), a systematic shiftin atmospheric pressure, sea surface temperature, and oceancirculation in the tropical Pacific Ocean.